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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, March 21, 2006



Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

Abstract. On the basis of model of aether and working model of the photon developed by author it is shown the nature of Bradley's stellar abberation, which is the change of vector of a mechanical pulse of photon at the moment of its detecting owing to motion of the receiver concerning aether. It is shown that Nikitin phenomenon is a collinear drift of photon in aether. Also it is shown that angular beam deflection of light near to the Sun does not exist. It is shown that the distribution of spectral shift of Fraunhofer lines on the disk of the Sun corresponds to presence of motion of aether to the Sun according to Nikitin phenomenon.

The crisis of physics, which has arisen in the begining of 20-th century in connection with the sharp extension of unexplained physical picture of the world, has put the choice before science: to accept a heavy challenge of history - to recognize, at least temporarily, the inability of explanation of complex natural phenomena and the need of more careful analysis, or cutting off, putting the blinders on all inexplicable things and to construct obscurantic closed and speculative theory permitting to satisfy of human pride. Unfortunately “the scientific majority” has selected the last. As a result the relativistic physics being self-sufficient in itself, but not appropriated to the physical facts, negating aether - the basic matter of the Universe was adopted.

Crooked Light

"The fact does not meet to the theory...? - It is worse for the fact!”

Albert Einstein

Relativistic physics has introduced the concept of abstract vacuum, in which the abstract light wave with constant velocity in relation to variously moving objects is propagating.

At the same time any physical wave is a disturbance of physical environment and it can not exist carrier-free. The speed of real physical wave does not depend neither on speed of the radiator, nor on speed of the receiver. It is determined only by parameters of environment - the density of inertia and its elasticity. Only environment, the carrier is the frame and reference system of wave velocity.

The frequency of the relativistic photon can not be logically realized within the framework of the relativistic theory itself, as according to this theory at speed of light time stops.

Thus, the relativistic light wave is illogical theoretical object not appropriating for logic and physical reality.

As the followers of Isaac Newton [1] and Albert Einstein operated with a corpuscle of light like an object having gravitational mass, and considered that near to gravitating bodies light goes on a conic section defined by a gravitational interaction. However light quantum has no gravitational mass. It is known for certain, and consequently, it can not be an object of gravitational interaction. The ostensibly having place and experimentally affirmed angular deviation of rays of light near to the Sun according to Einstein's theory, actually was the issue of desirable for real, lobbyed by sir Arthur Eddington, the authoritative combatant of Einstein's theory. The authority of Eddington locked the criticality of researchers, has routed their thoughts to false paths, forcing them to search only for confirmation of a position of Einstein. Substantially, the measured light deflection does not correspond to the theory of Einstein and is not angular. And this hypothetical effect does not exist quite at observation of eclipsing binary stars having mass large rather than the Sun, though according to Einstein's theory the angle of light deflection must be greater. Does gravitation of other stars differ from gravitation of the Sun?

One more myth is ascribing the probabilistic nature to a trajectory of single photon. One of its apologists was the same sir Eddington.

In 1908 English officer MacMagon has stated an idea of deconvolution of diffraction picture for recovery of true stellar diameter at covering by Moon. [2, 3]. However sir Eddington has killed this magnificent idea on new interferometry immediately, having declared about its inconsistency. It has held back the development of new interferometry for decades.

Substantially, if we do not consider interstellar distances, we must adopt the fact shown in one-photon experiments, as follows, the trajectory of photon is determined from the moment of emission up to the moment of absorption. The trajectory of photon is probabilistic only in sense of complexity, variability and difficulty of the registration of the factors influential in it.

Naturally, one of most ridiculous and illogical examples is the relativistic explanation of a stellar abberation, when the observable angular variation of light is compared to change of relative motion of rain drops under umbrella of the going man.

Contradicting to itself, relativists recognize that there is an environment, in which rain drops move, and the man with umbrella goes this environment. As a matter of fact they refute relativity and abstract vacuum of space.

Mathematical gedanken inertial reference systems and real physical frames

"Do you believe that the Moon exists only when you look at it?”

Albert Einstein [4]

Mathematical physics, having expanded groundless the relativity of Galileo, has entered the concept of inertial reference system (IRS), which's running velocity as though does not influence on physical processes and, besides IRS itself can be selected arbitrary. Physical mathematicians, making circus tricks with IRS, purely skip not only physical nature of phenomena, but logic also. Choosing arbitrary IRS it is possible to achieve any beforehand planned outcome, as the energy and the momentum depend on this arbitrary choice.

The actual physical frames are physical environments, in which there are those or other physical phenomena. They can not depend on arbitrariness of the observer.

Selecting arbitrary IRS for electrified bodies, physical mathematicians come to nonsense: two rest relatively each other and laboratory IRS unipolar electrified bodies are repulsed, but the same two rest relatively each other and driving concerning laboratory IRS bodies are attracted. Choosing arbitrary IRS it is possible to have different and not appropriate to reality parameters of waves. Now the notion about the speed of electromagnetic waves has turned into belief of an independent constant of velocity, which is not varying concerning bodies, moving with different speeds in different directions. And at the same time relativistic electromagnetic waves exist outside of environment, the necessary physical carrier.

Substantially, as well as velocity of any other physical wave, the speed of light strictly depends only on parameters of environment and should be count out from environment as natural frame.

All other measurements of wave speed of concerning external objects are valid only on the moment of its interaction with these objects, and they have no any sense concerning objects, to which there is no interaction.

Thus, for physically profound consideration of any physical process, and first of all, wave, it is necessary to define the physical frame (the environment), on which there is this process. Then it becomes clear that the rest from each other charges, but moving concerning laboratory, are substantially moving about rest aether in laboratory, the light of stars coming on from the apex has greater speed concerning a telescope than the light of stars coming from antiapex. And all stands on the places.

Having accepted such position, we will consider optical phenomena, resting on concept of the actual physical frame that is aether.

The working model of photon

What are light quanta?
- "Of course today every rascal thinks he knows the answer, but he is deluding himself"

Albert Einstein

According to the model designed by author [5] the light represents joint oscillations of two types:

- Longitudinal oscillations of aether having huge velocity of propagation, exceeding the speed of light on many orders [6],

- Transversal oscillations having light velocity.

A model of aether consisting of highly-packed corpuscles - gyros yields exactly such ratio of longitudinal and transversal velocities. Besides as it was shown in [7], the physical laws of inertia discovered 400 years ago by great Galileo are an effect of such architecture of aether.

For visualization a simplified model of the photon is shown in fig. 1.

Fig. 1. A model of the photon.

( 1 - is direction of photon propagation; 2 - is a front part of a column of the longitudinal standing wave; 3 - is a back part of a column of a standing wave; 4 - is a single amer dislocation; 5 - is associated with dislocation electromagnetic wave of disturbance in aether)

The photon arises at the moment of discontinuity of aethereal environment. Thus the single dislocation creates around itself a fixed velocity circulation of environment that is it creates a moment of momentum of environment equal to Planck constant.

This wave of oscillations associated to dislocation is the core of photon. Two types of oscillations of the core are electrical and magnetic fields cyclically exchanging energy. The potential (electrical) and solenoidal (magnetic) oscillations of the core are a diaphragm creating and dividing two columns of standing longitudinal waves. By virtue of the fixed asymmetry the columns create constant pressure on the core, which is propulsion of photon.

The core of photon from the moment of arising, that is emission, goes with transversal velocity, that is velocity of precession of aether. The velocity of propagation of this core is determined by local density and elasticity of aether, that is equals local light velocity.

Being transversal and periodic both component of electromagnetic field are only the carrier of moment of momentum of photon, but they are not carrier of pulse. The carriers of mechanical pulse of photon are columns of longitudinal oscillation.

Attitude between frequencies of longitudinal flon and transversal ftran oscillations of photon is equal to attitude of longitudinal vlon and transversal c velocities of aether

flon/ftran = vlon/c = B = const.


Thus, the wavelengths of transversal and longitudinal oscillations are equal, that is determined by their parametric interconnection.

The columns of longitudinal oscillations represent two components practically the same frequency, the difference of phases between which determines phase and frequency of transversal oscillations of electromagnetic “core” of photon.

The effect of the given model of photon are the properties of light, the main of which we will consider below.

Diffraction, Interference of Light and Huygens - Fresnel Principle

“Your theory, Mr. Fresnel, is absurd because its effect is
a light spot in the center of shadow of a round screen!”

Simon Poisson

The mechanical pulse p of photon represents quantity of linear motion of photon in its longitudinal component created by very small linear inertia inlin of aether in column of longitudinal wave and extremely high speed of propagation of longitudinal waves in aether

p = inlin vlon.

Substantially longitudinal waves are standing waves, as the number B in (1) is a huge value, about P1/3 ~=1021. The longitudinal waves of photon are "bound” to the photon core which moving with slow velocity c. Thus, having super-high coherence, the longitudinal aethereal waves create an interference field of periodic pressure in aether, which in case of meeting hindrances practically instantaneously transform to normal (proper) oscillations of a closed them cavity. The occurrence of interference of light and such exotic phenomena of light as practically instantaneously propagating entangled states of photons [8] and interference disjointed in space and time photons [9] are obliged to presence of longitudinal waves.

Each point of aethereal environment covered by such oscillations is a source of periodic pressure exerted by a mechanical pulse of photon

p = h / λ


Being directional in one side vector, the pulse of photon does not create pressure back, but it only causes disturbances in aether, which amplitude is described by the Kirchhoff's formula. It explains a physical reason of Huygens' principle that is phenomenon of diffraction and interference of light.

The distribution of amplitudes and phases of pressure in aether is almost instantaneous and uniquely determinated by the instantaneous configuration of a cavity in which the longitudinal wave propagate. It defines the deterministic nature of a trajectory of photon movable by this pressure.

The randomness in its motion is only measure of variability of the shape of a cavity.

Thus, the photons disjointed in time and space can interfere, as it was predicted and experimentally proved by professor Eugene Shtyrkov in 1978 [10].

Two types of motion of aether

The research of the nature of inertia [7], phenomena of Bradley's stellar abberation and Nikitin phenomenon has resulted the author in discovering of two types of motion of the aether, light quanta and bodies in free phase (electromagnetic) aether: equipotential and gradiental.

Let's name the motion on directions appropriate to zero of the density gradient of free phase aether as equipotential motion (equipotential components of motion). On the average it is equivalent to a direction of absence of gradient of gravitation.

I must remind to the reader that according to model developed by the author the free phase aether (pseudo-gas) does not participate in gravitational interaction directly, but only as environment ensuring the gear of a gravitation in sources and discharges by means of the first kind phase transition (gas-liquid transition) in aether, when at condensation of this pseudo-gas around of a gravitating body the rarefaction forms in bound (gravitational) aether (pseudo-liquid).

Let's name the motion on a direction of gradient of free phase aether as gradiental (vortical) motion (gradiental by the component of motion). The time-average direction of this motion of phase aether coincides to direction of gravitational field.

Naturally, for any point of aether (three-dimensional space) it is possible to point two equipotential and one gradiental components, and in absence of gravitation the motion of aether is completely equipotential. According to offered model and experimental data [11, 12, 13, 14] the velocity of gradiental motion of phase aether is equal to the escape velocity of given point at the average.

At equipotential motion of light or a body according to inertial gyroscopic properties of aether [7] the last does not operate on objects linearly driving through it that is Galilean principle of relativity takes place. On the direction an equipotential component of motion of photon the components of its pulse appropriated to equipotential motion are completely saved.

The gradiental motion being a motion of environment of transversal, vortical oscillations, completely attracts light and partly drags material (in a very small degree). According to this gradiental component of motion of photon is equal to velocity of vortical motion of free phase aether. As speed of light in 104 - 105 time exceeds a velocity of aether and, accordingly, the escape velocity, it is meaningful to speak only about perpendicular components of a trajectory of photon during consideration of effects of the first order. The gradiental motion of aether is only vortical, and the mechanical pulse of photon is not transmitted to environment.

Thus, there are two physical frames of aether: potential and vortical. The potential frame is the carrier of longitudinal waves (waves of compression) and carrier of mechanical pulse. The vortical frame is the carrier of transversal vortical (electromagnetic) waves and moment.

The introduced concepts allow to understand and to describe the nature of two physical phenomena: Bradley's stellar abberation and Nikitin phenomenon.

The Nature of Bradley's Stellar Abberation

"Can you bring forth the constellations in their seasons or lead out the Bear with its cubs? Do you know the laws of the heavens? Can you set up God's dominion over the Earth? … Tell me, if you know."

[ Job. 38,32:33]

Discovered by James Bradley in 1728 the phenomenon of stellar abberation, in which the angle of observable stellar light will be derivated trough vectorial addition of velocity of light and orbital velocity of the Earth, from the beginning was right interpreted by James Bradley, that the aberration is apparent angular light deflection.

Outgoing from this and knowing orbital velocity of the Earth, he has determined velocity of light. Vulgar relativists have considered the change of an observable angle as an actual angular light deflection. Actually, the motion of an indirect body, the Earth can not influence on an angle of light in any way, if it does not meet this light yet. Besides it contradicts the law of conservation of pulse and moment.

The aberrational angle comes up at the moment of detection that is at the moment of collision of photon with detecting device as outcome of exchange of mechanical pulse of photon and detector, driving in aether. The trajectory of a free photon remains straight-line down to the moment of collision. Thus, the aberration is distоrtion of a true angle at the reception. It is confirmed by all experiments.

The analysis of aberrational experiments made by the author, displays following.

1. As any local “subterfuges” such as filling of a telescope by water and dagging of aether by atmosphere do not change a stellar abberation, it once again confirms a position of the author that the formation of a mechanical pulse of photon happens on length multiply exceeding of atmosphere thickness.

2. As at drawing of tracks of annual aberration we have undistorted ellipses with the semimajor axis 20.5” lying in Earth's orbital plane, it testifies that the equipotential linear motion of aethereal environment in interplanetary space is homogeneous in bulk of planetary system, at least to external planets, and the low limit of length of a free photon is not less several astronomical units.

3. Experiment and analysis of Prof. E. I. Shtyrkov made in 1997 - 1999 was shown that Bradley's aberration takes place in the same IRS (between the Earth and stationary satellite), and its amplitude is equal same 20.5”, as in the case of stellar abberation [10]. Thus, the relativistic version of an explanation of aberration by relative motion of source and detector is completely eliminated. Besides this experiment displays that inside a cavity formed by stationer and terrestrial receive antenna, which forms a mechanical pulse of photon, the equipotential velocity of aether concerning the Earth is very stable and equals to orbital velocity of the Earth plus constant.

Thus, Bradley's aberration is explained to that the length of column of longitudinal wave of photon (length of coherence) is not less than in B times more wavelength of photon that is comparable to interstellar distances. The aberrational angle of a free photon is shaped on these distances.

The Nature of Nikitin Phenomenon

"Who has the wisdom to count the clouds? Who can tip over the water jars of the heavens when the dust becomes hard and the clods of earth stick together? … Tell me, if you know. "

[ Job. 38,37:38]

In 1980 - 2003 George Nikitin has made series of thin experiments on measurement of light beam deflection in conditions of geodesic laboratories. He has found out a phenomenon of visible beam statistical deflection to the center of Earth [11]. The statistical data processing of this experiment gives a mean angle appropriate to

α = arctg (v/c); v = (2іM/r)0.5


where v - is escape velocity on surface of the Earth; і - is gravitation constant; M - is mass of the Earth; r - is radius up to center of gravitation (center of the Earth).

As against terrestrial diffraction and refraction this angle does not depend on base of measurement, whether it be 1 meter or 1 km. Thus, the Nikitin phenomenon is similar to phenomenon of stellar aberration. The difference consists that the occurrence of this effect irrelevants with motion of the Earth.

Processing of the source data of Michelson - Morley's installation by Australian professor of physics R. Cahill in 2003 has resulted him in a similar conclusion about presence of motion of aethereal environment to center of the Earth with escape velocity [12].

The statistical processing of outcomes of professor E. Shtyrkov experiment has yielded observable (apparent) deviation of a stationary satellite in the side of the Sun appropriate to value of aberration ~50 km/s, that is close to the formula of a Nikitin drift 42 km/s (3).

In opinion of the author, Nikitin phenomenon is connected to vortex motion of a free phase (electromagnetic) aether in the radial direction to the Earth. This motion is caused by radial difference of pressure of free aether caused by process of gravitation (phase change of free aether into corpuscular aether, that is condensation of aether during process of gravitation).

Thus, in opinion of the author, as against stellar aberration, Nikitin phenomenon is caused by lateral collinear drift of electromagnetic wave (cores of photons having a vortical nature) following after the carrier (electromagnetic ether) with its speed. So any physical wave, for example sound wave in air, behaves. Besides, being gyroscopic environment, ether is not capable to transmit a mechanical pulse to photon, that is to change a direction of vector of photon.

The phenomenon of lateral drift of light beam creates illusion of its angular deviation. Substantially the pulse of photon remains invariable, there is only lateral shift of a beam with speed of vortical moving of free aether perturbed by gravitation.

This case is illustrated in figure 2. There is the apparent and actual position of a measurement scale at lateral aethereal wind.

Fig. 2. An apparent angular shift of light beam in Nikitin phenomenon.
( 1 - is actual positions of observable object; 2 - is direction of vortex flow of free aether perturbed by gravitation; 3 - is trajectory of collinear drift of light beam; 4 - is a sensor; 5 - is visible direction of light source; 5 - is apparent position of observable object; 6 - is visible (apparent) angle of object displacement)

Nikitin Phenomenon and Apparent Angular Deviation of Light Beam near to the Sun

"What is the way to the place where the lightning is dispersed, or the place where the east winds are scattered over the Earth? Who cuts a channel for the torrents of rain, and a path for the thunderstorm? ... Tell me, if you know."

[ Job. 38,24:25]

Taking in account that according to the theory developed by the author the free (electromagnetic) ether presenting actual physical frame of electromagnetic phenomena goes in space with the second solar escape velocity (3) in a direction of gravitating body, it is possible to determine an appropriate collinear drift of light.

At flyover of photon apart h from center of the Sun the distribution of escape velocity v(t) directional to the Sun along the trace of photon is described by formula (3), in which r is

where c - is speed of light; t - is time of motion of photon concerning flyover the point proximate to the Sun r = h.

Normal to the trace of photon component of speed v (t) is equal

As effective length of a column of longitudinal wave of photon in outside space is great, and makes value σ > 3∙1011 m, the speed of lateral drift of photon in the moment t in gaussian approximation can be accepted as

where the first exponential term determines distribution of density of longitudinal wave before reflection from the detector, and the second term - after reflection; tn - is running time of a core of photon, considering from a point of perihelion; td - is time of the detector (distance of the detector from the point of perihelion rd, reduced to time rd = ctd).

This velocity determines current value of a drift

From here it is possible to find an angle of light beam apparent deflection at time t after the moment of passing proximate point to a heavenly body in arc seconds

As against model with a massive photon moving on a hyperbola in the post-Newtonian and Einstein theories, where the angle is determined by formula

In offered model the apparent angle φ(t) decreases instead of grows with distance from the Sun (see fig. 3). It is fit to that fact that near to stars there is not any Einstein's deviation of light beams. On the contrary, than observer closer to a heavenly body, there is more apparent angle of a light beam.

Fig. 3. Relation of an apparent angle of light to heliocentric distance of observation.

Vortex Motion of Aether and Fraunhofer Lines Shift in Solar Photosphere


"The true knowledge is knowledge by causes"

Francis Bacon

In 1980 - 1982 Barry Labonte and Robert Howard have published observed data and analysis of distribution of frequency shift of Fraunhofer lines on the disk of the Sun [15].

After a residue of Doppler shift at the count of rotation of the Sun and influence of a magnetic field they obtained distribution of displacement of Fraunhofer lines approximable in the terms of Doppler velocity by equation

vLH = L1(1 - cos(ρ) + L3(1 - cos(ρ))3, L1 = -155 (±11) m/s, L3 = 727 (±11) m/s


where ρ - is heliocentric angle.

From this equation it is visible that the range of values makes 882 (±11) m/s. Besides they have established the presence of access of distribution approximately equal π/8.

Let's show that the distribution of spectral shift obtained by these authors is composition of two factors:

- Vortical spiral motion of aether to center of the Sun;

- Difference of gravity potentials between solar surface and Earth.

For the solution of this problem let's identify values of these factors in the terms of Doppler velocity (Doppler shift is accepted only for the coordination of physical dimensions, though physical sense of each value is different).

The shift of Fraunhofer lines in the terms of Doppler velocity at the count of difference of gravity potentials Δφ is equal

where γ - is gravitation constant, M - is mass of the Sun; r - is solar radius; R - is distance from center of the Sun up to the Earth; c - is speed of light.

Fraunhofer lines shift at the count of the aether velocity vector directional under some angle β to radius of the Sun is

where α - is an angle from center of the Sun considering from the direction of the Earth.

The angle β is an angular shift of aethereal flow at the count of a self-dragging.

Thus, the shift value (4) should be equal

Knowing actual velocity of equatorial rotation of the Sun vr via motion of spots, it is possible to construct Doppler profile of solar surface

The total observable lines shift in the terms of Doppler is

From here it is easy to receive distribution of components of lines shift that is shown in figure 4.

Fig. 4. Distribution of components of Fraunhofer lines shift on the disk of the Sun in the terms of Doppler velocity [m/s] in accuracy conterminous with experimental data at І = А/8.

Thus, inexplicable earlier vectorial (on directing cos α) the blue shift of Fraunhofer lines relatively of gravitational Pound - Rebka shift on solar limb can be explained now by the vortical drift of aether to gravitating body discovered in Nikitin's experiment.


As a result of the analysis made by the author there is clarified following.

1. The angular light beam deflection as a veering of vector of a mechanical pulse of photon in free from material aether does not exist by virtue of the law of conservation of momentum. The assertion of post-Newtonian and Einsteinian theories on this case are wrong.

2. The mathematical abstract concept of the inertial reference system is not physically correct and does not correspond to physical reality. Really there are nonequivalent physical frames of environment and objects moving concerning environment. Moreover, for a wave the physical frame is environment uniquely.

3. The photon is joint oscillations of three types:

- Standing longitudinal waves transferring a mechanical pulse of photon;

- Transversal electrical and magnetic waves transferring a moment of photon.

4. There are two types of motion of aethereal environment: equipotential and gradiental (vortical). First determines the physical frame of longitudinal waves, and second determines physical frame of transversal electromagnetic waves.

5. The phenomena of diffraction and interference are determined by properties of longitudinal waves of photon. The interference figure practically is inertialess and is established in ~1020 times faster than the speeds of light. At coming of photon in a cavity there is a formation of normal (proper) waves with speed of longitudinal waves ~1021 c, which are seem as the "vacuum oscillations" in modern physics.

6. In connection with highest frequency and highest Q-factor the length of coherence of longitudinal waves of photon exceeds diameter of Solar system.

7. The phenomenon of stellar aberration is transmission of mechanical pulse of the detector of light to longitudinal oscillations of photon, which at detection of light of stars have length of coherence measured in parsecs, and at smaller distances are equal multiply passed length of all route of photon.

6. Nikitin phenomenon is a collinear drift of photon in the vortical frame of aether, which mean velocity is local escape velocity.

7. The distribution of spectral shift of Fraunhofer lines on the disk of the Sun confirms offered model of aether guessing its motion radially to gravitating body with the escape velocity and shows the presence of twist of aethereal flow absorbed by the Sun, that is difference of the factor of self-dragging of aether from zero.


The author expresses the gratitude to twice Laureate of the State Premium of the USSR the honored figure of science of Russia and Tatarstan, professor Eugene Shtyrkov (The Kazan Physics-technical Institute, Russia) for scientific support of the present research, to Eugene Dmitriev (veteran of the "Salute” Design Bureau of the Khrunichev Space Center, Moscow) and to Arcady Solunia (chief engineer of Mission Control Center of "KazSat") for the valuable information help, to Nickolay Noskov (the National Nuclear Center, Almaty, Kazakhstan) for persistent scientific and intellectual support of present research.

Karim Khaidarov,
Almaty, March 21, 2006


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Знаете ли Вы, почему "черные дыры" - фикция?
Согласно релятивистской мифологии, "чёрная дыра - это область в пространстве-времени, гравитационное притяжение которой настолько велико, что покинуть её не могут даже объекты, движущиеся со скоростью света (в том числе и кванты самого света). Граница этой области называется горизонтом событий, а её характерный размер - гравитационным радиусом. В простейшем случае сферически симметричной чёрной дыры он равен радиусу Шварцшильда".
На самом деле миф о черных дырах есть порождение мифа о фотоне - пушечном ядре. Этот миф родился еще в античные времена. Математическое развитие он получил в трудах Исаака Ньютона в виде корпускулярной теории света. Корпускуле света приписывалась масса. Из этого следовало, что при высоких ускорениях свободного падения возможен поворот траектории луча света вспять, по параболе, как это происходит с пушечным ядром в гравитационном поле Земли.
Отсюда родились сказки о "радиусе Шварцшильда", "черных дырах Хокинга" и прочих безудержных фантазиях пропагандистов релятивизма.
Впрочем, эти сказки несколько древнее. В 1795 году математик Пьер Симон Лаплас писал:
"Если бы диаметр светящейся звезды с той же плотностью, что и Земля, в 250 раз превосходил бы диаметр Солнца, то вследствие притяжения звезды ни один из испущенных ею лучей не смог бы дойти до нас; следовательно, не исключено, что самые большие из светящихся тел по этой причине являются невидимыми." [цитата по Брагинский В.Б., Полнарёв А. Г. Удивительная гравитация. - М., Наука, 1985]
Однако, как выяснилось в 20-м веке, фотон не обладает массой и не может взаимодействовать с гравитационным полем как весомое вещество. Фотон - это квантованная электромагнитная волна, то есть даже не объект, а процесс. А процессы не могут иметь веса, так как они не являются вещественными объектами. Это всего-лишь движение некоторой среды. (сравните с аналогами: движение воды, движение воздуха, колебания почвы). Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.

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