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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, October 8, 2007
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

The critical analysis of modern terrestrial planetology is given. On the basis of author's research in the fields of seismology, cosmology and nuclear physics from ethereous paradigm position the sight on evolution of the Earth, its internal architectonics and internal dynamics is systematized.

..."His truth shall be thy shield and buckler."
[Psalm 91,4]

Basing on Kantian concept of the Universe evolution [1], dilated by the author from position of ethereous paradigm, resulting in cardinally to other sight than modern sight on the origin both evolution of the Solar system and the Earth [2], let's try to revise structure and internal dynamics of the Earth basing on results of the seismological research, which have been carried out in Borovoye [3,4] and basing on new common physical research of the author [5-14].

Unfortunately, despite of sufficiency of accumulated data, developing the "new global tectonics" in 1960-ths [15], drilling super-deep wells, the modern science about Earth's entrails, its evolution and dynamics is far from adequacy. With the purpose of a clearing of the causes of such situation and substantiation of the offered approach in the begining of the paper let's offer the criticism of the sights which have been usual in physics of the Earth and terrestrial planetology.

The readers who are not wishing to tire by this criticism, may pass at once to a constructive part of the article.

Myths of physics of the Earth and planetary seismology

"The Fact does not meet to the theory? - So much the worse for the fact!"
Albert Einstein

The roots of planetary mythology. The prime cause of errors of a modern physics of the Earth lies in inaccessibility of terrestrial depths to any observations except for seismometric, gravimetric and magnetometric, acceptance for true of many speculative constructions of evolution of the Earth originating from "betterments" of Kantian cosmogonic concept by mathematicians Laplace, Lagrange and their followers, and limitation of term of existence of the Earth by 4.56 billion years.

As shown by the author in [2] the actual age of the Earth makes trillions years, from which only last 4.56 billion years as an "inner" planet, that is solid core of a planet of the Jovian type, which has stayed after explosion of the Sun for a type of nova. The finding out of this circumstance excludes at once the fast formation of the Earth from mythic protoplanetary cloud, so-called "hot version" of evolution. Myth of dense protoplanetary cloud follows also for the lack of similar clouds in the modern apparent Universe and myth of short term of its existence assigned to it by relativistic physics. Substantially Universe of stars and galaxies exists, as minimum, many trillions years, from what the essential stationarity of process of formation and destruction of sidereal systems follows. The actual process of formation of planets takes trillions years of accretion of cometary substance with formation of planets of Jovian type, on a chemical contents identical to stars of "population I", comets and interstellar substance as a whole.

The author has fixed that the planets of terrestrial type are central, high-melting parts of Jovian type planets catastrophically lost atmospheres at explosion of their host star as nova. All "inner" planets of Solar system nowadays having mass much less of "outer" planets, giants, occupying circumferential part of Solar system where the radiation of nova could not remove their atmospheres.

As shown by research of cometary substance, (see, for example, [16]), the planets of terrestrial type have a similar chemical and identical isotopic ratio to solid component of comets [17, 27, 28] and interstellar dust that confirms an origin of planets by accretion of cometary material and cryonite being a yield of supernovae explosions. The mean elemental composition of comets, interstellar dust meets to terrestrial and lunar basalts.

The myth of a radioactive nature of terrestrial heat has arisen from a speculative hypothesis about the origin of Earth 4.56 billion years ago from protoplanetary cloud containing radioactive isotopes. The observed facts, however, contradict this hypothesis.

At first, the radioactive isotopes contain basically in continental granite crust, but oceanic basalt crust and mantle magma practically are deprived of radioactive isotopes.

Secondly, the allocation of internal heat of the Earth practically uniformly on the area irrespective of oceanic crust or continental crust, and it makes value about 80 mW/m2. Middle-oceanic rises, continental rifts and "hot spots" are the exception, where heat output is about 1 W/m2.

In opinion of the author, the origin of radioactive isotopes was a consequence of irradiation neutrons on the Earth by nova during very short, about 200 days time 4.56 billion years ago. Therefore these isotopes are mainly in the continental crust, and the readout of all radioactive decays begins from the moment of nova explosion.

The myth of chemical character of seismic boundaries inside the Earth has arisen from necessity of an explanation of various density, elasticity and viscosity of the terrestrial entrails which have been found out at the wave form analysis.

However, as will be shown below, the layers of the Earth lower than the crust have no chemical (relative elemental) individuality, that directly follows from its “cold” accretional-sedimentary origin from cometary substance. Besides the reflected seismic waves arise even there, where there is no difference in physicochemical properties of rocks, but there is any non-uniformity, for example fault, failure, unmixing of rocks.

The myth of iron core of the Earth closely adjoins to the previous myth and has arisen from two chance analogies:

- Representation about iron - nickeliferous meteorites, as debris of other planets;

- High-density of terrestrial core.

In opinion of the author, the iron - nickeliferous meteorites are not debris of planets. As shown by the author in [2], it are probably debris of core of a star, which has decayed at catastrophic loss of atmosphere and the result of fast transition of substance of the core from supercompressed state into ordinary states of substance with it transmutation into atoms of iron mainly. The similar phenomenon (tramsmutation any chemical element into iron) is discovered by Kiev physicicts in laboratory conditions [18]. The authir explains high density of substance in center of the Earth absolutely newly, as a destruction of a valence shell of atoms and transition of ordinary substance under effect of hyperpressure into supercompressed phase state.

The myth of basalt layer in continental crust has arisen from wrong interpretation of the data of seismic sounding, whichs detected here and there on depths 12 - 20 kms reflecting boundary (Conrad discontinuity) with increase of velocities of seismic waves lower than it. This myth was decayed by the Kola Super-Deep Borehole ("SD-3" or "SG-3") in 1990 years shown that at passage of Conrad discontinuity the chemical and mineralogical structure of rocks does not vary. However the thinking of geophysicists is so inert that for dozen past years they did not do the respective alterations in existing mythic model of continental crust.

The myth of lateral homogeneity of the mantle has arisen from wrong extrapolation of increase of uniformity (homogeneity, spherical symmetry) of high layers of terrestrial crust with the depth up to mantle. It has arisen from the apparently natural guess that the main disturbing horizontal forces disappear with depth. However it is not so. Below author will show that essential lateral non-uniformity and the block structure of mantle is a necessary requirement of explicability of tectonic processes and it confirms by seismological data.

The myth of a common volumetric convection of the mantle was born as the answer to necessity of explanation of lythospheric plates motion. There were offered the vortical models of circulation in the mantle, see, for example [19]. But really, the good passage of transverse waves through the mantle and its mean viscosity about 1027 measured according to the data of seismology excludes the possibility of its common convection [20]. In other words, the mantle is essentially solid in its main volume.

The myth of tangent forces between lythosphere and astenosphere was born during attempt of an explanation of migration of earthquake epicenters found out by Charles Richter in 1958, by suggestion of presence of shearing stress and deformations on lythosphere and astenosphere boundary.

The mathematical models explaining so-called "waves of deformation", found out by many authors at processing of the earthquake catalogues and having low speeds (10 - 100 kms/years), by means of tangent forces on lythosphere and astenosphere contact [26], actually are not corresponded to the data on viscosity of astenosphere.

Really, the astenosphere and especially its high layer have no necessary value of viscosity for creation the friction for local shearing stress sufficient for earthquake occurrence. The shearing stress created by astenosphere in lythospheric plates has an effect only for the large areas and propagates practically with velocity of transverse waves.

The myth of the only shearing gear of earthquakes has arisen from simplified and in many respects wrong models of destruction of rocks mass in effect of quasi horizontal strain in solid terrestrial crust. This model has invited to the dead end both the earthquake forecast, which essentially did not advaned for one century after Prince Golizin, and the physics of the Earth itself. The facts of last Indonesian earthquakes, when the energy of earthquake has exceeded the theoretical limit in 3 - 6 times (earthquake near Sumatera island, December 26, 2004, Ms = 9.4±0.1), discredited this model together with a myth induced by it, about long-term (more than 10 years) preparation of strong earthquakes by accumulation of strain in terrestrial crust.

The myth by long-lived stressed deformational preparations of earthquakes has arisen from the same wrong model of the earthquake guessing sluggish accumulation of potential energy in rock mass of a zone of earthquake preparation, which is released at breakup of continuity of terrestrial crust. This myth was descredited by series of strongest earthquakes in Indonesia recently, when some earthquakes has occured on the same place without durable accumulation of energy required by deformational model, for example, in following earthquake couples:

Nov. 16, 2000 4.0єS 152.2єE Ms=8.2 and Nov. 17, 2000 5.5єS 151.8єE Ms=8.2;

Nov. 15, 2006 46.6єN 153.3єE Ms=8.3 and Jan. 13, 2007 46.3єN 154.5єE Ms=8.2.

Trying to combine the observed facts with accepted model of earthquake, seismologists have understated the magnitude of Sumatranian earthquake 26/12/2004, having accepted 9.0 units for it. The boon, it was easy to make at accuracy of magnitude scales equal "plus-minus a feet". In connection with the last it is necessary to mention about meterological myths of seismology.

The surd of magnitudes scales was born from positivistic paradigm, when the dependency of a natural phenomenon to process of measurement is meant.

In 1935 classic of seismology Charles Richter has defined magnitude as the decimal logarithm of the greatest amplitude of seismic waves in microns recorded by seismograph apart 100 kms from of earthquake epicenter [21]. The definition of magnitude is depended on a way of observation and device initially, as it was bound not to energy of earthquake, but to behaviour of a sensor. Then, such wrong statement was fixed in methodology that a unbiassed sight can see practically in any magnitude definition. For example, it is readable at venerable seismologists [22, page 37]:

"Magnitude m, determined from body waves, depends on a period
of p-waves, and consequently depends from a type of sensor."

In this case the magnitude is not an objective measure of energy of earthquake, but something another, unsuitable for an objective estimation.

The other case is a measure of seismic energy of earthquake introduced in 1964 by alive classic of seismology Tatyana Glebovna Rautian termed afterwards as "Rautian energetical class" [23]. It is determined as the decimal logarithm of seismic energy of earthquake in Joules, found out by any accessible way.

Only this objective approach allows to achieve actual successes in seismometry, as the Soviet school of military seismology using energy approach of Tatyana Rautian has allowed to increase accuracy of definition of seismic energy of nuclear explosions and earthquakes tenfold in comparison with civil seismology, where magnitude scales reign till now.

The absurdity of addition of earthquakes of different magnitudes at creating of any kind of maps, diagrams, histograms frequently meeting in seismological researches, generates various artefacts and chance conclusions. It is meant the researchers frequently pirately dump earthquakes of different magnitudes in one heap, in one massif, forgetting that a unit of magnitude means difference in energy of earthquake in 32 times (for Ms scale). For presentation in figure 1 the analogy of energy for magnitude scale and scale of animal weights is shown. It is clear that at addition of midges and elephants as equal units we will receive nonsense.

Fig. 1. Analogy of the magnitude scale and animal weights.

Precision measurements in seismology

"Science begins where measurements are beginning"
Dmitri Mendeleyev

Discovery of the Earth breathing in Borovoye. Two decades back in USSR State Comitee on Inventions the application for discovery made by the employees of the Special Sector of IPE has acted. The essence of the discovery, the greatest merit in which belongs to known seismologists Wa-Dim An and Helen Luke, consists in revealing the phenomenon of a microvariation of velocities of p-waves passing through the mantle [3]. The variation was small. Its amplitude gave 200 milliseconds delay or advance on 13 minute trace Nevada - Borovoye with a period 6 - 7 years. For detection of this variation W. An and his scientific group made the monstrously laborious work including the analysis of various mismatchs and the hard-to-reach data about a precise place and time everyone of Nevada explosions utilised as precision sources of p-waves.

Is this variation large or small?

For detection by means of civil seismology such variation is unattainable in general, and it was unattainable for western colleagues till 1978, when they only have begun to use digital seismometry. In Borovoye, closed geophysical observatory at that time, the digital recording was produced since 1965 including a precision time service ensuring capability of measurement of such small variations of velocity of seismic waves.

On the other hand, the detected variation of velocities is superlarge. Why?

This is because the velocity of a seismic wave, as well as velocity of any other physical wave, is uniquely determinated by elasticity and density of environment. But density and elasticity of terrestrial entrails are considered as a strict stationary value for the following causes.

Since transverse waves freely pass through mantle and crust, this environment is solid. Near to terrestrial surface we see it obviously. Hence, there is no volumetric convection of heat in mantle, but only heat conduction. The heat conduction of crust (granite) and mantle (basalt) is known. It is those that Earth inside temperature can not change even on a thousandth part of degree for 3 years, half-period of the detected variation.

If so, ±200 milliseconds at mean velocity about 10 km/sec gives ±2 km length variation. In this case at 90º of distance Nevada - Borovoye and account of an angle of seismic waves exit the Earth should change its radius with a period about 6 years for ±2.4 km. However it does not occur.

What is the matter? At that time, 20 years ago it was not known. It was a ground for refusal in discovery registerring, though the discovery of hitherto unknown natural phenomenon was made.

The cause of a variation became known for the author later, after producing precise statistical study of variations of angles and amplitudes of body waves coming in Borovoye from all Globe.

Fig. 2. Distribution of 190 largest earthquakes (Ms=8.X) for last 120 years and its trend with periodicity conterminous in form with period of variations of velocities of p-waves, passing through mantle along Nevada - Borovoye trace.

Discovery of block structure of mantle. Usually, accessible for researchers seismic information consists of the secondary (parametric) information only, the times of wave arrivals and wave amplitudes for a station. Other important parameters, such as an angle of wave approach, precise magnitudal sensitivity that is difference of magnitudal estimation from true logarithm of earthquake energy are unknown. However, working on precision numeral instrumentation Borovoye, I was in lucky situation.

In 1990 the author using the automatic earthquake recording system working in Borovoye at that time, which gave parameters of the detected seismic waves, carried out research of variations of approach angles and amplitudes of p-waves depending on coordinates of the epicenters known from the preliminary earthquake catalogue (PDE).

The results of study was stated in the unclosed scientific report of 1990 [4]. Important for a case in point two paragraphs from it are adduced as the appendix of the present paper.

As a result of the carried out activity thre was found out the seismic waves undergo a refractive in depths of mantle, on the joint tectonic of plates, more exact in places of subduction, continental rifts and middle-oceanic ridges. In figures 3 and 4 the results of data processing from the report of 1990 as a map of the corrections for angles and magnitudes are shown.

The found out phenomenon was the key for the further research and recovery of a true structure of the mantle.

Fig. 3. Deviations of angles of p-waves approach in Borovoye from different regions of the Earth from azimuthes of the approach at spherically symmetrical mantle [4].

Fig. 4. Average p-wave magnitude deviations in Borovoye for earthquakes in different regions of the Earth from mean network magnitude of the global seismic network [4].

The birth and early formation of the Earth. As against the point of view of modern planetology, after study planetary features of the Solar system, the author has come to a conclusion that the true age of the Earth makes trillions years, from which only last 4.56 billion years it is a planet of "terrestrial type".

Before this time the Earth had bull atmosphere similar to atmosphere of Jovian type planets. But at that time already the mass of high-melting part of the Earth was acquired by durable accretion of interstellar substance. As it was shown in [2] 4.56 billion years ago the Sun has bursted being a nova, therefore the planets proximate to it have lost the hydrogen-helium atmospheres.

The entrails of planets of Jovian type are formed by deposition of solid part of cometary substance accreted by the planet. Such accretion, though slowly, occurs on our eyes. Recently we observed acquisition of Schumacher-Levy comet by Jove. In recent on Space scale time Saturn has trapped still larger comet which has decayed and its yet not fallen parts have formed well-known rings. Century ago the comet termed "Tungus meteorite" has falled on the Earth. Russian planetologist Eugene Dmitriev has found out tracks of set of the comets, which have dropped out on the Earth, and he has determined their elemental composition, which is appeared close to the terrestrial basalts [17].

Taking into account the unity of origin (yields of supernovae explosions), it is possible to approve the stationarity of intragalactic processes during many trillion years, and the justification of elemental composition as a result of stochastic motion of interstellar material (cryonite, microcomets and comets) that, except for top layer (crust), practically all volume of a planet, including the core, consists from homogeneous on an elemental composition material like basalts.

The metasolid phase state of substance. The feature of Jovian type planets is that their high-melting part makes 1-2% from their total mass and, hence, it is under high pressure of atmosphere and hydrosphere. It determines its other phase state than states of material, which is not located under so big pressure.

As it was discovered by the author [9], at pressure

pm = 2mp·Km / VH = 1.5·1011 [kg/ms2], [Pa],

Where mp - is the mass of proton, VH H 1.1·4АR3H/3 - is "hydrogenous" volume in view of dodecahedral packing, RH - is the radius of the first electronic shell of atom of hydrogen, Km = B/ρ [m2/s2] - is the module of mass elasticity being a fundamental constant, ρ - is mass density of material [kg/m3]. B - is module of bulk elasticity of atoms of material,

there is a decaying of “rigidity” of valence electronic shell of atom practically without dependence from the number of chemical element.

It results in transition of substance in a new phase state, "meta-liquid" having high fluidity. This phase state we see by means of seismology in entrails of the Earth on depths 2890 - 4980 kms. There velocity of transversal s-waves practically equal to zero, and their absorption is maximum.

On depth of 4980 kms the pressure is doubled and it becomes equal 3.0·1011 [Pa]. This is the pressure, at which the valence shells of atoms are at all collapse. With it the property of fluidity and all chemical properties of substances disappears. There is a new phase state, meta-solid type I. Such state is observed by means of planetary seismology, when in an internal core of the Earth we can see transverse waves generated at a refraction of p-waves on boundary of the internal core.

Let's note, that the presence of meta-solid core is characteristic not only for the Earth, but also for all celestial bodies having pressure in its entrails higher 3.0·1011 [Pa]. The meta-solid core have all large planets, stars of the Main sequence and quasars. Last are characterized by presence of meta-solid phases of higher types II - VI that is the hyperpressure in their entrails destroed the internal electronic shells of atoms of material [13].

Observed by means of seismology and gravimetry the double increase of density in core of the Earth is not caused to chemical features (let's remember myth of an iron core), but it caused by loss of a volume of atom as a result of destruction of valence electronic shell.

For this reason the hypothesis of Ott Christoph Hilgenberg, 1933 [31], L. Egyed, 1957 [32], B. C. Heezen, 1959 [24] about double expansion of the Earth during last 4.56 billion years is true.

The nova explosion and new evolution of the Earth. 4.56 billion years ago on the Sun having a meta-solid core, the splinters of planets and, probably, of a meta-solid core of other star have dropped out, having called catastrophic transition of substance from meta-solid phase state into gaseous. The Sun became nova on hundreds days. Radiation and gas wave have forced vanishing of primary atmospheres of the proximate planets, including the Earth.

From the primary Earth there was only high-melting core. It density was twice higher than today's density of the Earth. The transition of meta-solid material in customary phase states has begun. As against entrails of the Sun the pressure inside the Earth formed only meta-solid phase state of type I where the valence shells are destroyed only, the transition was not explosive. However, the surface layer of the Earth at once have transited in meta-liquid phase state, and then, it went to customary phase state. Naturally that the heat liberation at this transition was so considerable that the high layers of the Earth moltened. As a result of free heat emission from the surface there was quick formation of primary earth crust from light and high-melting material.

Since then, exponentially waning, there was a transition of meta-solid state of terrestrial core into customary phase states. The decay of transition intensity is caused by increasing pressure of of mantle material generated by this transition. Let's note, that element structure of material is the same both in core and mantle.

Behind past 4.56 billion years the diameter of the Earth has increased approximately in 1,4 times, its area - in 2 times, and its volume - in 2,8 times. Now velocity of this transition is so inappreciable that the heat emitted by core makes value about 5.0·1014 W or 0.1 W/m2.

Thus, there is a clear true source of earth heat. In opinion of the author the decay of radioactive elements formed at nova explosion 4.56 billion years ago forms no more than 5% from this value. Becomes clear that the heating of mantle realizes from its lower boundary, where it takes heat from phase transition from meta-liquid and meta-solid states of material into usual phase states (solid, liquid, gas).

As we see, in addition to Alfred Wegener's mobilism of continents during evolution of the Earth the spreading of oceanic bottom was occured for account of increase of terrestrial volume with downturn of its density. Thus, mass of the Earth and area of continental crust practically did not change, though the continents according to the data of the author could be reshuffled up to 20 times for account of alternation of tectonic flows direction.

Dilemma of phase state of mantle

"I don't know, whether I believe God, but I precisely know that I believe in plates tectonics"
Peter Molnar

In 20-th century planetologists were divided into two opposite camps: fixists and mobilists. Firsts negated motion of continents, and seconds supported Alfred Wegener's hypothesis about motion of continents. With new and new discovries the arguments of mobilists camp amplified. The multiple facts of continents integrating and disintegrating in the past were found, and, at last, with the help of direct satellite measurements the current motion of continents is detected.

Fixists have only one trump. The mantle is a solid formation, through which transverse waves pass. Thus, mobilists have not the absolutely necessary element, the closing of motion for fulfilment of the law of mass conservation.

All presently available models of mantle motion necessary for implementation of apparent motion tectonic of plates do not satisfy either necessary with quantitative, or necessary qualitative requirements.

The version of common mantle vortex does not yield necessary tectonic velocity of plates in connection with high viscosity of mantle on requirement of passage of s-waves, or it does not provide fulfilment of observed viscosity of the mantle.

The version of only of upper mantle circulation is not justified owing to absence of the seismic data confirmed existence of the lower fluid layer in middle mantle (We consider that astenosphere is another necessary layer for circulation process).

And main, the modern geophysics does not know a true source tectonic of energy. The radioactive decay is an obviously unreal source that the mantle is poor by radioactive isotopes, and the heating of the crust does not yield circulation, as it is outside of mantle circulation and besides it is solid.

Solid blocks and thin magmatic layers

"Tell how, and I will do it..."

Analyzing the data, obtained in 1990, in the light of the found out properties of terrestrial core, the author has come to a conclusion about existence of block structure of the mantle, where its blocks have narrow vertical boundaries passing under middle-oceanic ridges, continental rifts and as continuation of subduction zones to the terrestrial core. Magma, heated by a core, rises along these slots to the crust (into astenosphere), and when it return heat to lythosphere it drops through subductions to the core. An upper border of blocks is the upper astenosphere, and lower border is transient layer at the core.

This motion is natural, as hot magma has low density and cooled magma has high density. The offered model is agree with a fact of overpressure under middle-oceanic ridges, negative gravity anomalies and gear of subduction earthquakes.

Taking into account the level of damping of s-waves passing through a mantle bloks boundary, it is possible to find its thickness. Those damping and repeated differentiation of s-waves is observed on seismic records. The s-waves passed through mantle look like almost sinusoidal wave packets with reduced amplitude relative to amplitude of p-waves.

Let's notice that period of s-waves is limited overhand by time of relaxation (~3 sec) that is to say, it is defined by viscosity of magma [29]. From below the period of s-waves is limited by thickness of fluid magmatic slot. For real s-wave periods this value makes 5... 20 km.

As we have a undifferentiated sample of oscillations in the hypocenter as p-waves, using integrant deconvolution of s-waves it is possible to find thickness of magmatic slot between mantle blocks for each case exactly.

The independence of "hot spots" in relation to motion of tectonic plates and their heat source are easily explained in the offered model too. "Hot spots" are an exit of an overheated magma from "calottes", the traps on boundary of mantle and core (see fig. 5).

Fig. 5. Mantle blocks and magmatic motion on their boundaries.

1 - continental lythosphere, 2 - oceanic lythosphere, 3 - mantle blocks, 4 - upper astenosphere, 5 - fluid terrestrial core, 6 - magmatic boundaries (slots) between mantle blocks, 7 - toleite volcanos of middle-oceanic raisings, 8 - calotte of melting mantle under a "hot spot", 9 - "hot spot" volcano, 10 - transient layer of mantle, 11 - andesite volcanos of island arcs, 12 - continental raising.

Variations of velocity of the p-waves, which have been found out by Wa-Dim An and Helen Luke there are horizontal movement of mantle blocks on hundreds meters about each other. This displacement (variation of thickness magmatic of boundaries) can be uniquel calculated as a difference of velocity of p-wave in solid mantle and magma. The close connection of large earthquakes and detected variations becomes clear (see fig. 2).

Sometimes mantle blocks close to each other and the circulation on boundary between them ceases. So happened in Cretaceous Period on boundary of North-Pacific mantle block and South-Pacific mantle block where before a middle-oceanic ridge existed.

Now greatest pressure of hot magma is observed under East-Pacific Raising that is naturally, as the heat is collected from the vast area of Pacific Ocean. Atlantic Ocean is in stage of fading of hot magma incoming from the core now, especially in last of 15±5 millions years, during which the rift valley was formed. It is clear, that the altitude of middle-oceanic ridge is proportional to coming of magma, and its transversal profile can serve refinement of tectonic chronology in additional to paleomagnetic and isotopic chronology.

Instead of Atlantic Ocean, where mantle blocks become more and more close to each other, the hot magma from a sole of mantle tries to find an exit through African "hot spots" and East-African Rift.

The nature of Conrad discontinuity and seismic artefacts

"True knowledge is a knowledge by causes"
Francis Bacon

As it was already marked above, the Kola Super-Deep Borehole has dispelled a myth about a basalt layer of terrestrial crust. In this connection there is other question: why the seismic observations see a certain plate boundary? What is its nature?

Here it is necessary to recollect that the Conrad discontinuity is not observed everywhere. It disappears in dry regions. Besides the Conrad discontinuity can change its position year from year that at once excludes its binding to an elemental composition of the crust that is to concrete rock mass. Besides this discontinuity passes there, where computational temperature of entrails is close to 374єC. In place of the Kola Super-Deep Borehole was considered that Conrad discontinuity passes at the depth 5 km, however there is no mineral change. At the same time the condition of forming the hydrates change with increasing of the temperature [30].

In opinion of the author these requirements are enough for the confirmation that the Conrad discontinuity is the boundary of water critical state. At temperature above critical temperature the liquid state and formation of hydrates are impossible.

Thus, higher than Conrad discontinuity at the presence of moisture there are hydrates, and lower of this discontinuity there are not hydrates. Dehydrated rock have density and elasticity diversified from hydrated rocks.

From here, in view of data of the Kola Super-deep, it is possible to make a conclusion that continental crust is essential granite in all strata.

Pondering in yielded by seismology, it is possible to see that more often reflective surfaces for seismic waves are non-uniformity within environment, for example, bounded with a plane of motion (at one time) or failure of one layer of rocks concerning another, where the caverns and unmixings of rocks are formed. Therefore, presence of seismic boundary is not yet a fact of physicochemical boundary.

Origin of the continental crust

"And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of
the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters"

[Genesis, 1:6]

As against bottom of the oceans being basalt of jelled magma raised along middle-oceanic interblock slots and in "hot spots", the continental crust grows out of eutectic repeated remelting of same magmatic material.

The matter of fact that according to geophysical data all continental crust is granite essential. If in it also there are inclusions of basalts and others not of granite components, which are entrapped or induced by secondary processes. The general feature of continental crust is the smoothly varying transition from granites in the top to andesites in lower layers. It is shown in structure of volcanic lava above inclines of subduction taking out molten rocks of lower lythosphere.

The andesites represent itself transient rocks from basalts to granites, in which the process of granitization was not finished.

The physical properties of granite and basalt are those that at melting point of basalt the granite is in a solid state, and the mass density of granite is lower than density of basalt. Performing of these two requirements is enough for stability of border between granite (andesite) and basalt. The third property of this border is lower heat conduction of solid granite and andesites in comparison to astenospheric basalt, which saves liquidity of astenosphere.

The physicochemical properties of this border (sole lythosphere) are those that on it there is permanent formation of microcrystals basic component of granite from a basalt melt. In connection with complex motion of astenospheric material this process goes wave-shapedly, with repeated refusion and recrystallization of a boundary layer. Under favourable conditions on this boundary thin gneiss-like layers of granite material are growing gradually. The process goes until comes to balance between dissolution of granite into astenospheric magma and inverse process of granite crystallization from basalt.

The gear of granite forming from a basalt melt is determined by properties of eutectic melts, when more fusible eutectic selectively dissolves fusible materials, and high-melting materials pass from eutectic solution in crystalline inclusions [25].

Features of circulation on mantle slots

The travelling speed of magmatic melt along fluid layer of astenosphere and along boundaries of mantle blocks is high. As a minimum it must be 7 decimal orders higher than velocity of crustal tectonic motion for maintenance tectonic "thrust". Besides the attitude of velocity of earthquake migration to plates travelling speed = 10-100 kms per year / 1-10 cms per year = 107. The cause of this fast-track motion is clear, it is the mantle heating on the side of core and the difference of density of a pole of a heated magma of middle-oceanic boundaries of mantle blocks and cool magma lowered in subduction zone. This thermal machine transforming heat of terrestrial core into tectonic motion is the cause of earthquakes and sluggish lythosphere motion. By the way the share of earthquakes energy is only 1% of this energy, and the rest is energy of creeps and other sluggish motions.

Besides the author found out close seasonal connection of large seismicity with variations of solar day (see fig. 6). This connection can take place only in one case, if viscosity of a fluid layer of an astenosphere and mantle slots very low, and seismogenic strains arise at magma interflow from the block to the block.

Irregular movement of the Earth on orbit and the tidal forces derivate pressure variation on phase changes from terrestrial solid core to fluid core and from fluid core to the mantle that conducts to phase change with a heat liberation.

The Time Equation shown in dark blue line in a fig. 6 is deviation of actual midday (culmination of the Sun) from theoretical 24-hour day within one year. The integral amplitude of this variation makes ±15 minutes and is determined by solar movement not in a plane of equator, but in a plane of the ecliptic, and also determined by elliptic earth moving, the change of velocity from maximum in January 2 up to minimum in July. Angular rate of rotation of the Earth about the axis remains practically constant.

Fig. 6. A seasonal histogram of large (Мs=8.X) seismic activity of the Earth (red columns) for last 120 years and seasonal variation of solar day (Time Equation).

Except for dayly oscillations of tidal forces there is a factor of free motion of a solid core in fluid core of the Earth, that causes the change of intensity of its dissolution. On all visibility, the sharp peaks of seasonal activity in January and July can be explained by maximum difference of orbit of the core from the orbit of other terrestrial mass, when the Earth is in perihelions and aphelion.

Forces causing large earthquakes

“When I shall receive the congregation I will judge uprightly.
The earth and all the inhabitants thereof are dissolved: I bear up the pillars of it."
[Psalm 75, 2:3]

As against the accepted now only shift gear of earthquake meaning the activity only of horizontal forces, the author considers that for earthquakes of large magnitudes the major factor is a presence of bending the crust vertical forces created by interflow of astenospheric magma.

This interflowe creates saging forces in places of departure of a magma and raising forces in places of its arrival. In connection with high speed of magma flow the preparation of earthquake can take very short time and besides there can be a following earthquake in short period within the same location, if the sign of sagging will change (see fig. 7).

Fig. 7. the scheme of influence of irregularity of astenosphere motion on earthquake occurrence. 1 - lythosphere, 2 - upper astenosphere, 3 - mantle, 4 - place of earthquake occurrence.

The single motion of asthenospheric magma does not suffice for occurrence of strong earthquake. It is necessary the presence of irregularity of this motion. The composite astenosphere topology observed by seismic means is a background for irregularity of motion of astenospheric magma. The fluid upper astenosphere under continents represents itself the composite network of the underground magmatic rivers, lakes and inlets.

The time irregularity of motion astenospheric mass forms as a minimum by following factors:

- Solar tides and irregularity of motion of the Earth on orbit, and thereof by irregularity of diurnal waves of solar tides (see Time Equation in fig. 5).

- Lunar tides and misfit of orbital plane of the Moon with a plane of the ecliptic and the plane of rotation of the Earth.

- Sporadic processes of change of astenospheric magma motion topology as a result of foundering new passes and blockage of old ones.

- Dynamics of phase change activity on fluid and solid surfaces of terrestrial core that is change of power of a heat flow from the core.


As a result of application of the ethereous approach developed by the author to problems of cosmogony, cosmology and planetology, analysis of an actual material obtained by seismology, following facts were found out in the field of physics of the Earth:

  - The Earth exists during trillions years, the most from which as a giant planet of Jovian type basically liquid - gaseous, and smaller part of that time, 4.56 billion years, as the high-melting remainder from initial planet.

  - For the last of 4.56 billion years the Earth has increased in linear size approximately in 1.4 times, in 2 times in square, in 2.8 times in volume for because of transition of originally supersqueezed material into usual phase states.

  - Basically the Earth consists of basalt rocks of cometary origin, and of high-melting granite crust formed by eutectic recrystallization (metamorphism) of the main rock.

  - Conrad discontinuity is thermal boundary of critical temperature of a water, and continental crust excluding spurious inclusions is granite.

  - The mantle consists of solid blocks parted by narrow vertical boundaries.

  - The prime cause of tectonic of process is transition of material of supercompressed phase state into material of usual phase states on core surface and heat generated in this transition. The heat is taken out to lythosphere by magmatic flow along narrow slots between mantle blocks, and magmatic flow moves lythosphere.

  - "The Hot spots" are exits of the magma going through all mantle from calottes, the traps of the melt on boundary between mantle and core.

  - The large earthquakes are originated mainly by vertical bending of terrestrial crust under effect of interflow of astenospheric masses.


The author considers as the debt

  - to donate for memory of organizer of the USSR nuclear science Pavel Kevlishvili, chief of the IPE Special Sector, founder of "Borovoye Geophysical Observatory", accepting and supporting scientific initiatives of the author during his work on Expedition N4;

  - to express thanks for Vitaly Adushkin, director of the Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres of The AS USSR / RAS giving "green light" to all initiatives of the author during his work in the IDG;

  - to express gratitude for Wa-dim An, scientific chief of the Expedition N4, as a matter of fact who made me a seismologist.

The author considers obliged himself

  - to donate for memory so recently and untimely left us the most highbrow from the people known for me, Vitaly Khalturin, world famous seismologist, the dialogue with whom is invaluable reached me;

  - to express gratitude for alive classic of seismology Tatyana Rautian for her science, with whom I had a happiness to communicate, whose thin mind and legible logic leave far behind "the strong half" of seismologists, whose scientific approach to measurement of energy of earthquakes was utillized by me during 20 years.

The author considers obliged himself to recognize that only close activity, professional dialogue with many high quality scientists, seismologists and physicists of the IPE Special Sector / IDG RAS, their benevolent relation have made possible for me to reach something in the Earth science, about whom and about what I will never forget.

The author pleasantly expresses its sincere and warm thanks to Ph.D. Felix F. Gorbatsevich (Kola Scientific Centre, Apatites, Russia) for constant scientific and moral support and to Valeri V. Petrov (Nikolaev, Ukraine) for valuable remark on this text.

Karim Khaidarov
Almaty, October 8, 2007.


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