© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, September 1, 2004
In this paper the concept and outcomes of research of the author permitting is set up to arrange physical notions about stellar energy are stated. Here is shown, that the main power source of stars is the phase transition of an aether in process of gravitating of moving particles of substance. The experimental confirmations of the aethereal concept of the stellar power are adduced.
"I shall rescue him; I shall protect him, for he acknowledges My name"
In this paper, the presence of the aether in the Universe will be taken as a fact [1,4], and considered as a united quasi-isotropic, practically incondensable and ideally elastic medium that is the main basic matter, the carrier of the whole energy and all processes that occur in the Universe. This is based upon the working model [2-13], that presents the aether in the manner of a two component medium - corpuscular and phase and it is upon this model that we will consider the phenomenon of an energy release by an aether during a gravitation.
The Starly-thermonuclear Myth
Inspired by idea of an atomic energy opened in experiments of Rutherford, 1919, astrophysicists have put forward a hypothesis about thermonuclear character of energy of the Sun and stars. Due to the works of H. Bethe, Critchfield and Weizsäcker , the theory of thermonuclear fusion in entrails of stars was designed. It was assumed, that the hypothetical proton-proton reaction is the main kind of a nuclear fusion, as a result of which there are heavy chemical elements and energy. The action time of such hypothetical fusion is enough for about 1010 years of existence of the Sun, but in laboratories till now any act of such raction was not obtained.
This hypothesis was well fit in the relativistic approach assigning not more than this term for whole life of the Universe. Besides that was one more triumph of Einstein adopted formula E=mc2, indeed found out by N. A. Umov in 1873 [25, 26].
However, the creators of this hypothesis and their apologists skipped and till now skip set of the facts, contradicting to it. There are following.
The Earth, planet of an earth type and the asteroids exist already of 4.56 109 years. For this time the Sun should expend up about half of hydrogen. It is confirmed, that an elemental composition of the Sun and interstellar environment are practically identical, that is for all time of the Sun “combustion” the hydrogen practically was not spent.
The flow a solar neutrino is less than it is necessary for pp-reaction and generally for thermonuclear reactions appropriate to Sun power. Neutrino flow is subject of seasonal (daily, 27-day's, annual and 11-year's) oscillations and according to latest research outgoes not from internal high-temperature parts of the Sun, but from equatorial surface layers rotated with a 27-day period [21 - 23].
The essence of any chain reaction consists in that if it begun, it up exponential to the full consumption of an explosive grows. As during a thermonuclear reaction there is an increase of density and temperature in a front wave, the reaction much more accelerates. As A. M. Liapunov showed as far back as 1882 , the nature of any chain reaction is those, that it has no stability at a multiplication factor 1 in essence. Only under the special conditions, controlled by a fast-response automatics, there can be a continuous nuclear reaction with an icrease factor equal to 1. On an example of Chernobyl we know, that even the reserved automatics not always manages this diabolical process.
Let's show, that an actual power source of the Sun and stars actually is the aether. For this purpose we will consider the features of its phase transition in the gravitation process.
Features of Process of Phase Transition of an Aether on Moving Particles
"What is the way to the abode of light? And where does darkness reside? ...Tell me, if you know"
[ Job. 38,19]
In papers of present author [3,4,5,6] the advancing by him working model of process of gravitation was shown. Its essence is, that the gravitation is a result of pressure drop near a surface of elementary particles of substance. The fall of pressure perfoms due to the first kind phase transition (condensation of amers of a phase aether into amers of corpuscular aether). This pressure drop happens because amers of a phase ether have the much greater volume, than amers of a corpuscular ether.
In itself the phase transition of an aether is ideal in the sense that all energy of motion - external kinetic energy of amers of the phase aether passes lossless into an internal energy of a corpuscular aether amers. More precisely, these losses till now did not measured or even watched.
If such losses took place for condensed mediums, it would be watched at super-low temperatures as "groundless" heating of material. Besides as the phase transition happens spherically symmetrical, “the impacts of pressure” during phase collapse of amers are compensated, does not making Brownian motion of particles.
However we will consider a process of phase transition (gravitating) for a moving particle. In a figure 1 the effect of two opposite amers of a phase ether on a particle is shown.
Fig. 1. The scheme of operation of rarefication forces at amers phase transition.
( The red arrows indicate currents of amers traffic, but the direction of its impulses is opposite)
As amers are indistinguishable from each other, with other things being equal they should transmit an identical impulse to a particle at phase transition
K = Fa to [kg m/s]
where Fa is a force created by phase transition, to – is a time interval of phase transition.
The motion of a particle creates a difference in transition times
Δt = to vT /c [s]
where vT – is a speed of a particle defined by its temperature, c – is the speed of light.
As a result of it there is an additional impulse of a particle, directional on its motion
ΔK = Fa (t2 – t1) = Fa (t2 + Δt - t1 + Δt) = 2Fa Δt = 2 Fa to vT /c [kg m/s]
As the Maxwellian velocity of particles of gas is equal
vT = (2kT/m)0,5 [m/s] ,
where k – is Boltzmann constant, T – is a temperature of gas, m – ia a particle mass,
that the additional impulse created by two antipodal amers at phase transition will be equal
where cos – is a cosine between a current of traffic of a particle and line of operation of amers pair.
Let's mark, that in a figure the red arrows show motion of a phase aether amers toward a particle, and the impulse of phase transition has a backwards direction.
As we know the incremental velocity of a particle dvT from (1) it is simplly process of increase of temperature, it is possible to find a value of energy transmitted at one act of phase transition of one amer from (2)
As we know the intensity of a flow of a phase aether in process of gravitation, derived by the author earlier,
Ig = 2πc2/h = 8.52 ·1050 [amer / kg s]
it is possible to find a function of power allocated by an aether in a mass of gas M from (3)
P = dΔW Ig M [J/s]
where d – is a factor which is taking into account an angular distribution of a phase aether flow relative to particle motion.
The obtained formulas are the key for our further consideration and as a matter of fact determine the face of stellar Universe.
Let's show, what exactly this eternal and inexhaustible energy is an energy of Sun and stars. For this purpose we will consider the physical laws of radiations which are inherent to spherical "black bodies”, that the stars are.
Light Emission of Gas Orbs
"Can you bring forth the constellations in their seasons or lead out the Bear with its cubs? Do you know the laws of the heavens? Can you set up God's dominion over the Earth?... Tell me, if you know."
[ Job. 38,32:33]
Intensity of heat radiation ε of a physical body, which properties are close to "black body”, and those are the gaseous atmospheres of stars, is uniquely determinated by the Stefan – Boltzmann’s formula 
ε = σT4 [J/s m2]
where σ – is a Stefan – Boltzmann constant,
T – is a temperature [oK].
From (6) and the Kepler’s Law of Radiation (1604) expression for power radiated by gas orb uniquely equal
L = 4πR2 σT4 [J/s]
It is interesting, that from expression (7), called by astrophysicists as an absolute luminosity, it is possible to eliminate the parameter of temperature, having received relation only from mass and radius of a gas sphere.
For this purpose it is enough to accept, that the most probable speed of the most light particles of a high layer, i.e. electrons, is equal to orbital speed for the given altitude (radius R), and distribution of electrons submit to Maxwell statistics (1), that is
v1 = ( γM/R)0.5 = (2kTe/me)0,5 [m/s] ,
whereγ – is gravitational constant.
From here we receive expression for temperature of electrons of a surface of a gas sphere
Te = γMme / 2kR [oK] ,
This temperature is colour temperature of a gas sphere, which differs from effective temperature by displacement of a transmitted spectrum in high-frequency area for the score of electrons thermoemission over limits of a sphere. Usually the temperature (8) differs from effective temperature of a surface of a sphere a little and this difference can be taken into account by entering the colour correction equal, for example, for the Sunct = 1,093
Substituting (8) in (7) we will receive expression for a luminosity
Let's mark, that knowing the mass and the temperature of a gas orb (stationary star) from expression (8) it is possible to define its radius uniquely.
The expression (9) can be made independent and from radius of a sphere, by substituting in it the relation of radius to mass of a gas sphere derivated by the author
R = (KR M)0,2 [m], KR = 8.0·1013 [m5/kg] = const
Thus, from (9) and (10) finally we will receive a function of an absolute luminosity from mass
The expression, obtained by the author, is a theoretical derivation of a function of main stellar sequence for the Hertzsprung-Russel empirical diagram .
Thus, if the star represents itself a gas sphere and it is in a stationary state, its luminosity precisely corresponds to the main sequence.
The formulas (9, 11) are usable to the Jovian type planets too. Its specify and explain the emission of the greater energy by gaseous planets, than receiving from the Sun.
The Jeans’s Myth and Kant’s Reality
"Who has the wisdom to count the clouds? Who can tip over the water jars of the heavens when the dust becomes hard and the clods of earth stick together? ... Tell me, if you know. "
[ Job. 38,37:38]
Obtained by Jeans in 1903 the derivation of conditions of a gravitational blow-up in its most basis rested on an wrong postulate of presence of gas pressure in the Space. As a result of that the large threshold value for the protostar sizes and necessity of such pressure was obtained at the moment of their origining. This idea was picked up with pleasure by relativists, starting counting of a life time of the Universe from mythical and alogical Big Bang.
However, if we look at this problem seriously, the most closest to true is the concept of the ingenious philosopher Immanuel Kant, 1755 .
Really, if we were accept, that the life of a star terminates by supernova explosion, and that, as the observations show, in galaxies, similar to ours the phenomenon of supernova arises once during a century, and that in a galaxy about 1011 stars, we will receive a life time of ordinary star about 1013 years. During the life a star up to thousand times undergoes catastrophes such as a “new star", when it collides with another star or in its inside really there is a nuclear explosion.
Watching the Space we see, that in interstellar environment consisting of atoms of hydrogen, helium and small quantity of other elements, during billions years there is an origin and growth in the beginning smallest, and then larger particles, which collect under effect of Van der Waals and electrical forces in motes, then similarity of snowflakes, then larger cometary bodies, which being integrated, will form sun-free protoplanets - protostars, similar on a structure to Jupiter.
Expanding through acquisition of interstellar material, these at the beginning the cold planets transform in small "methan", and then brown dwarfs. Slowly, it is usually after many billions years, they become as our Sun, and then it is even more and more brightly.
However, such idyll happens not always. If on the path of motion the star meets a gas-and-dust cloud of high (on measure of Space vacuum) density, the fast growing of a star begins. Thus the energy of an aether becomes only a part of a common radiation and temperature energy of a star. The energy of dropping material is added to it. Therefore in this moment, on short on measure of Space time, during about 107 years a star descended from main sequence becomes the giant or supergiant, that is determined only by intensity of influx of material. As soon as this flow runs low, the star returns to main sequence again. All this happens so fast, that is observable in historical times.
For example, in 1997 as a result of spectroscopic observations in North Caucasus on BTA is shown, that having powerful IR-emission peculiar hypergiant IRC 10420 has changed during last 20 years the effective temperature of atmosphere from 6000 up to 8500 К .
The reliable acknowledgement to Kant's concepts is found by Edwin Salpeter  distribution the stars of main sequences on mass, similar classical Gutenberg - Richter's distribution for earthquakes. Recent discovering with cosmic telescope the big amount of infrared "baby-stars" continues Salpeter's distribution else on order aside small masses . It seems these flying hydrogen "LITTLE BOY" hyperbomb are the main reason of nova blasts in a moment of their meeting with star.
As a result of the research, conducted by the author the following is clarified:
The author is grateful to the professor Friedwardt Winterberg (University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA) for an informative discussion on the problem, considered in this paper.
The author is grateful to Johann Kern (Stuttgart, BRD) for corrections and constructive critics of present paper.
Almaty, September 1, 2004.
Когда тот или иной физик использует понятие "физический вакуум", он либо не понимает абсурдности этого термина, либо лукавит, являясь скрытым или явным приверженцем релятивистской идеологии.
Понять абсурдность этого понятия легче всего обратившись к истокам его возникновения. Рождено оно было Полем Дираком в 1930-х, когда стало ясно, что отрицание эфира в чистом виде, как это делал великий математик, но посредственный физик Анри Пуанкаре, уже нельзя. Слишком много фактов противоречит этому.
Для защиты релятивизма Поль Дирак ввел афизическое и алогичное понятие отрицательной энергии, а затем и существование "моря" двух компенсирующих друг друга энергий в вакууме - положительной и отрицательной, а также "моря" компенсирующих друг друга частиц - виртуальных (то есть кажущихся) электронов и позитронов в вакууме.
Однако такая постановка является внутренне противоречивой (виртуальные частицы ненаблюдаемы и их по произволу можно считать в одном случае отсутствующими, а в другом - присутствующими) и противоречащей релятивизму (то есть отрицанию эфира, так как при наличии таких частиц в вакууме релятивизм уже просто невозможен). Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.
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