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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 7, 2007

STELLAR EVOLUTION

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

Abstract. On the basis of previous study the sight on evolution of stars, star-like objects, globular clusters and galaxies is systematized. The circulation of substance in the Universe is shown within the framework of ethereous paradigm, developed by the author.

 

“… I will deliver him; I will protect him, because he knows My name".
[Psalm 91]

Basing on a concept of structure of the Universe offered by Giordano Bruno [1], a concept of evolution of the Universe constructed by Immanuel Kant [2], a concept of the stationary Universe developed by Fred Hoyle [3,4], on the study which have been carried out by others classics of astronomy, including A. A. Belopolski [5], I. I. Campbell [6], R. J. Trumpler [7, 8], E. Hubble [9], Baade [10], E. Salpeter [11], H. C. Arp [13-23], J. and E.M. Burbidges [3,12,19,20], who explored properties of stars and galaxies, also utilizing a rich actual data accumulated by astronomers for last decades, and also on the concept of aether, offered by author, let’s try to construct a logically clear pattern of the Universe of stars and galaxies in its stationary development.

Unfortunately, despite of sufficiency of the accumulated data, the graceful pattern of developing Universe is garbled till now and it is latent from a look of astrophysics. With the purpose of clearing the causes of modern situation in astrophysics and substantiation of the offered approach in a start of this paper I will offer the critique of the sights which have been usual in a cosmogony and a cosmology, that is in a theoretical astrophysics, for last century, however, if it is necessary for the reader, he may skip criticism and proceed to read a section «Circulations in the Universe».

Myths of relativistic astrophysics

”A fact doesn't meet the theory? – That is worse for the fact!”
Albert Einstein

The roots of relativistic mythology. The prime cause of fallaciousness of modern relativistic astrophysics lays in acceptance for true of relativistic postulates. The essence of those is in following:

- The absence of electromagnetic oscillations carrier, i.e. the absence of aether.
- Restriction of speed of light by its velocity in nearby empty Space, and as a consequence – the restriction of velocity of all travels of any substance, energy and information by this velocity.
- The principle of equivalence of mass and inertia.
- Postulate of warpage of the Space.
- Postulate of deceleration of time with velocity, illogically mutual for both twins...

The numerous facts which have been found out by physicists during last century directly point to invalidity of relativism postulates.

The speed of light is not constant in empty Space that is in free aether. The Michelson – Morley experiment, 1887, on which effects relativism bases, was put incorrectly, as in it the attempt of measuring of velocity of a standing wave being zero on definition was made.

In the same 1887 Russian classic of astrophysics Ari Belopolski has discovered the dependence of speed of light on stellar absolute luminosity that specifies the increasing light speed near great stars heating the medium that is aether [3]. The speed of light is various on directions of apex and ant apex that is visible from effects of observation of shift of focus in a refractor [24]. By direct measurements of unidirectional speed of light in 1974 – 1980 professor Marinov has discovered uniquely the distinction of speed of light lengthways and against a motion of the Earth in aether [25, 26].

For a long time it is known that the metals have refraction factor less than 1 that means the speed of light in metals is higher than its velocity in vacuum. For example, in silver it is in 9 times higher.

As far back as in 1965 Nikolay Basov, the inventor of laser has discovered the excess of group velocity of light in lasers (active environments) above speed of light in vacuum experimentally [27]. In recent time the phenomenon of the «entangled states» of quanta or, in other words, the «teleportation» of photons with velocity many orders exceeding speed of light is discovered [28].

It is possible to tell without any exaggerating that relativism keeps not on the facts, but only on bayonets of the academic top which has been not interested in an exposure of Einstein’s hoax. Let's remind that only during the Soviet time Presidium of Soviet Academy of Sciences triply issued the Resolutions about an interdiction of criticism of the relativity theory. Academicians have closed a road to True and basis of well-being of any country, the development of new technologies basing on theoretical tools and having only that field of development, which is not forbidden by the theory. In result all human community remained deprived. The normal development, both science and technologies, as a matter of fact is broken.

Not pressing in social aspects of the established situation, let’s consider what dead spots relativism has built for astrophysics.

The myth about of Universe finality in time and space. From relativistic constancy and insufficiency of speed of light the insufficiency of velocity of information interchange, causal relationship between far objects of the Universe, and from that the insufficiency of time of Universe existence follows.

The actual astrophysical facts deny such consequence, so also deny relativistic postulates. Typical for a relativistic astrophysics is the self-acting ignoring everything that leaves for frameworks of dogmatized paradigm. For example, at A. A. Klimishin [29, page 541] is readable:

«That these calculations about fates of stars having various masses tell. The stars, which mass are less M0, stay on the Main Sequence more than 1010 years, and this circumstance makes them «poorly interesting», you see their age appears more than age of Milky Way. Much more interestingly destiny of stars of mass from 1 up to 1,5M0»

Directly, as in a medieval Uzbek joke of astronomer Ulugbek times:

- Professor! What you search under a street lantern?
- A coin has dropped somewhere in that ditch.
- And why you search here?
- Here is lighter.

The Universe has not arisen from anything through «Big Bang» 8 - 13 billion years ago, as it assert by relativists. The objects known for astrophysicists are much more elder than Friedman – Einstein’s world. There are, for example, globular clusters, not fall into category of the most ancient formations, age of youngest of which greater than 15·109 years. The terrible example is Great Attractor, the crowd of galaxies, for which formation the times in many billions years were necessary.

The astronomical observations find out galaxies locating from each other on so great distances and existing so long that they are not stacked in frameworks close relativistic world. At the same time last reviews of deep Space directly point to isotropy of the Universe up to visual horizon of ±30 billion years [30].

Breaking causality itself by an invention of «Big Bang» relativists have put itself outside of a logic science, where the principle causality is basic. Without causality there is no science, but only deceit and hoax, for any scientific research means presence of the reason and it builds all on relationships between cause and effect.

Starry-thermonuclear myth. Inspired by idea of atomic energy made clear by Rutherford‘s experiments of in 1919, relativists have propound a hypothesis about thermonuclear character of solar and stellar energy. Due to works of Bethe, Critchfield and Weizsekker [31] the theory of thermonuclear burning inside of stars was designed. It was assumed that a basis of nuclear fusion is the hypothetical proton - proton fusion reaction, and an outcome of which there are heavier chemical elements and energy. The time of activity of that hypothetical combustion (in laboratories till now there was not obtained of any act of that reaction) is enough for 1010 of the Sun existence. The hypothesis was well entered in the relativistic approach in astrophysics, established for life time of the Universe little more of this value. Besides it was one more triumph of assigned to Einstein formula E=mc2 actually deduced by Nikolay Umov in 1873 - 1874 [32 - 36].

However founders and apologists of this hypothesis skip till now a set of facts contradicting to relativism. They are here.

The Earth, the planets of terrestrial type and asteroids exist of 4,56 billion years, as minimum. For this time the Sun should spend up a half of hydrogen. But research has confirmed that chemical composition of solar substance and interstellar medium are practically identical that is for all time solar "burning" the hydrogen practically was not spent.

The stream of solar neutrino in some times less than it is necessary for the statement about presence mythic pp-reaction on the Sun and in general for thermonuclear reactions relevant with solar power. Stream of neutrino is subjected seasonal (diurnal, 27-day's, annual and 11-year's) to oscillations and on last research radiates not from interior high-temperature parts of the Sun, but from equatorial surface layers rotaried with 27 day period [37 - 39].

The essence of any chain reaction consists in its feature of exponential growing up to the complete consumption of explosive substance. As during thermonuclear response there is a magnification of density and temperature in front of a shock wave that even more accelerates response. The nature of any chain reaction is those that it has no stability at a multiplication factor 1 essentially. Only under the special conditions checked by rapid automatics, the presence of interior delays there can be a continuous nuclear reaction with multiplication factor equal 1. On an example of Chernobyl we know that even repeatedly reserved automatics can not cope with this devil process at all events.

As it was shown in [40] an actual source of solar and stellar energy is the aether, and the fusion power in the manner of deuterium - tritium synthesis plays a small role making less than 1 % of power of stellar radiation for sun-like stars. Unfortunately, the relativistic mythology has taken possession of astrophysicists’ minds so strong that they do not suppose another idea except for the thermonuclear approach. For example at A. A. Klimishin [29, page 370-371] is readable:

«On account of what energy a star pulses? The answer to this question is extreme prime: the starmakes mechanical oscillations for because of energy relieved in it inside. More difficultly, it would seem to explain another: how the radiant energy outgoing on a stellar surface is transmuted in mechanical. But in this case the answer is already obtained due to works of A. Eddington (1882 - 1944) (England), S. A. Zhewakin (USSR) and R. Christy (USA)».

- The answer is obtained, but erroneous. There is no any nuclear reaction in a body of the red giant with temperature at centre less than 5000ºK. This type of stars is practically transparent as it has the monstrous size at modest mass. It is visible in Hubble telescope even! The simple calculation is shown, for example, that the medial density of Betelgeuse at its mass 9 solar and radius 684 million Km makes 13,3 mg/m3. For surface layers this quantity does not reach 1 ìã/ì3. And at effective temperature of a star 3000ºK, which yields in the basic central part, temperature of a surface is lower 600ºK. It is visible on Hubble telescope snapshot very well [41].

Myth of relativistic scattering of galaxies was born from absurdity of Einstein – Friedman’s "theory" about universe blowing up into "anything" and using Edwin Hubble’s discovery - statistical dependence between distances up to galaxies and redshift in their spectra.

In 1926 Edwin Hubble has found out that the close galaxies are statistically stacked on a line of a regression, which in the terms of Doppler shift of spectral lines can be characterized in almost stationary value

H = VD / R [km / (s Mps)]

Here VD – is a shift of spectrum transferred in Doppler velocity [km/s], R - distance from the Earth up to a galaxy [Mps].

Edwin Hubble itself did not assert Doppler nature of these shifts, and in 1929 discoverer of novae and supernovae Fritz Zwicky has connected these shifts with power loss by light quanta on cosmogonic distances. Moreover, in 1936 on the basis of study of allocation of galaxies Edwin Hubble has come to a deduction that it can not be explained by Doppler Effect [9].

However absurdity has triumphed. They began to assign almost light velocity in a direction from the Earth for galaxies with high redshift.

Analyzing redshift of various objects and calculating «Hubble constant» it is possible to see that this parameter more differs from asymptotic value 73 [km / (s Mps)] while an object is closer.

Substantially for each order of distances there is own value of this parameter bound with conditions of passage of light in aether [42].

The myths about «dark matter» arise constantly, one worse than another. The root of them is in ignorance not only practical astronomy, but also theory. One half-century ago Edwin Salpeter has found out that distribution of stars on masses is in inverse proportion to a quadrate of their mass. This distribution leaves far from frameworks of optical band. Telescopes of Space basing have shown it. It is enough to look at the catalogue of nearby stars for see that infrared dwarfs, invisible in an optical band, make the killing majority in spite of difficulty to find out them because of small luminosity.

From Salpeter's distribution follows that the most part of usual stellar substance is invisible, and the main mass of condensed substance consists of interstellar dust (cryonite), infrared dwarfs, white dwarfs and sub dwarfs.

The myth about stellar formation in galactic arms is caused by increase of brightness of stars transiting galactic arms. Actually, as study of the author have shown, the medial excess of brightness of stars in arms is a consequence of "Kelvinian" share that is share of accretion in brightness of stars transiting the place of interstellar gas-and-dust aggregation. Stars of "early classes", with which the fantastic nuclear reactions are assigned, are only stars excited by accretion of dust and gas. It is not necessary to walk far for an example. Look the reports of Vega study.

The myth about «black holes» was born by relativistic representation about a warpage of space and time. It is generation of a myth about twist of beams of light near to gravitating bodies. These myths is moldered instantaneous if we recollect that light is not bent at any eclipsed binary star, and the twist of light has taken place only in 1919 near to the Sun in experiment of Einstein apologists.

The apparent super heavy bodies in Space, which is given out for black holes in all known cases are identified by Halton Arp as quasars [13-23].

The myth about super far and fantastically large quasars. Assigning to redshift of quasars "Hubblean" nature that is considering that distance up to quasar is proportional to its redshift, the relativistic astrophysics consider quasars as out-of-limit far and fantastically great celestial bodies. On these guesses many laughable cosmogonic theories is constructed. Their occurrence is bound to tangle in heads of cosmologists. They consider redshift as a single physical phenomenon, though, actually in the Nature there is a set of the reasons of redshift [42]:

- Doppler shift caused by difference of velocities of source and receiver.
- "Hubblean" redshift caused by a dissipation of energy of light on cosmogonic distances ("tired light").
- "Trumplerian" redshift (K-effect) caused by a high absolute luminosity of stars.
- Gravitational shift (Pound – Rebka Effect) caused by difference of gravity potentials of a point of emission and a point of detection.

Contrary to relativistic myths, already during a lot of years discoverer and researcher of quasars Dr. Halton Arp shows that quasars physically, observationally associate with some known and not so far galaxies. He saves a huge statistical data of observation that is astronomical facts, which at the honest relation to a science cannot be skipped [13 - 23].

Upturned astrophysics. Unfortunately, during the development of astrophysics it lefts inside itself the aged prejudices as the settled patterns, which had an effect on thinking of new generations drastically. Practically here is all upturned, not only image in telescope eyepiece.

In spite of good sense, which prompts that the stones do not drop into the sky that the gravitation gives only the accretion and growing of celestial bodies falling to each other that is to increasing of their mass, the stars of the major masses are termed young or "early classes", and small, yet not saved masses, the "late classes".

In spite of fact that the globular clusters and red giants are apparent dynamical, today forming objects, they are considered as one of the most ancient objects of the Universe (naturally, they are more ancient than Friedman-Einstein speculatively invented world).

In spite of fact that Universe consists of myriads galaxies, galaxies consist of billions stars, astrophysicists assign the same value to the ages of objects of different hierarchical levels. Being in senses, may we tell that the age of mankind and a single man is the same?

Not understanding a nature of quasars, cosmologists assign it as a proto stellar state of the young Universe, though actually all is on the contrary. The quasar is an object arisen at stellar collapse as a matter of fact it is a stellar graveyard.

Now, having taken off crafty blinders of relativism, let’s look on divine face of eternal and infinite Universe, which is created by Pre-Eternal and Un-Initial Creator, the Parent of all parents.

Circulations in the Universe

“The Universe is uniform, perpetual, immobile...
It can not decrease or increase as it is perpetual...”

Giordano Bruno,
the scientist and theologian of XVI century

The circulation of energy in Universe. In paper [43] it was shown that the statistical analysis of 434 supernovae SN Ia parameters being original measuring poles, standard candles of the Universe, yields a pattern of homogeneous and isotropic Universe up to its  horizon, where flying through it during billions years quantum loses the energy exponentially. This single light quantum power loss is a confirmation not only homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe, but also is an indicator of presence of medium absorbing this energy. At the same time in paper [40] it is shown that the aether donates the energy to moving particles of substance more intensively than faster particle goes. Thus, the stars containing masses of heated gas are absorbents of energy of aether, which then is radiated by them into Space through quanta of an electromagnetic radiation.

Thus, the eternal circulation of energy in the Universe is made.

The circulation of substance in the Universe is more difficultly. The astronomical facts show presence of two kinds of circulation: extragalactic and galactic.

Extragalactic circulation of substance in the Universe

And God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water".
So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it.
And it was so.

Genesis [1; 6-7]

In boundless deep Space, far outside of galaxies there is scattered substance. It consists in basic of protons and electrons with admixture of alpha-particles and rare nuclei of heavier elements. There are remainders of the previous generations of galaxies destroyed by an inherent instability. An example of one of such perishing galaxies is the radio galaxy Cygnus A, collapsing on our eyes [44, 45]. Having exceeded a threshold of stable existence of weighable substance, it blows up, radiating electromagnetic waves and fundamental particles.

The extragalactic plasma. Reminders of Space accidents, the protons and alpha-particles, the so-called ultra rays, penetrate the Universe in seeking of shelter. Even a century ago they were filed by the Earth's atmosphere researchers, especially in its high layers.

Sometimes its shelter is not the atmosphere, but its own aggregation created after neutralization of protons and alpha-particles by Space electrons, when the electrostatic forces of repulsion can not destroy new clouds of gas. Having arisen, even the very rarefied Space gas at the extended size of a cloud is a good absorbent of fundamental particles. Being held in it, they lose a kinetic energy donating its atoms and molecules of gas, which are in turn released from this energy by radiation and gas collisions.

So the observed in different parts of Milky Way and behind its limits by means of known 21 cm hydrogen line and even in optical telescopes extended clouds of gas grow. This hydrogen-helium broth agglomerating yields of explosions of galaxies, serves a material for formation of stars of the first generation, so-called stars of «population II» or «Kelvin stars». Let's consider them more detail.

Kelvin stars. Still in XIX century Lord Kelvin has made a deduction, that one of stellar sources of energy is gravitation that is potential energy of particles of interstellar medium falling into gravitational hole of a star (accretion of gas). The duration of radiation of such stars equal on mass to the Sun makes tens millions years, and for red giant stars makes hundreds millions and billions years depending on presence of inflow of interstellar substance.

For a part of stars this radiant is basic. The red giants and super giants, stars of globular clusters, and other stars of «population II» (Walter Baade, 1944 [10]), so called «halo stars», filling in all elliptic volume of a galaxy, are really formed for because of falling on them of intergalactic substance, hydrogen and helium with very small share of heavier elements. Let’s note that except energy of gravitation there are incoming of own kinetic energy of particles and energy of ions neutralization. Naturally, small part of energy the red giants get from aether, however in connection with their low temperature this share can not be big.

The beginning of formation of Kelvin star occurs at local keeping the requirement of virial stability, Clausius, 1870, instead of hypothetical requirement of instability Jeans, 1903.

The virial stability in this case is determined by a threshold of inconvertible integrity of volume of gas in Space, and means, that the kinetic energy of particles of gravitating system should be less than half of their potential energy. Such requirement is observed in an agglomerating gas cloud under condition of output of a sufficient part of energy by radiation. In stable Kelvin stars that requirement is met. As against speculative reasoning of Jeans leading to the huge of size proto-star, the requirement of Clausius can be kept for masses of gas of modest size that is substantially observed in astronomy.

As against preaching by relativists, in Kelvin stars there is no thermonuclear reactions generally. Their temperature is low and its volumes are extremely great. As it was shown above, known for everybody Betelgeuse has density in hundred thousand time less than density of terrestrial air. It means that those stars represent extremely rarefied, transparent gas clouds. Blinded astrophysics do not see it, even having a snapshot of Betelgeuse from Hubble telescope and treating magnification of luminosity in centre of the star as «a bright hot spot on a surface, not giving in to an explanation» [41], see fig. 1a. Really, the luminosity of Kelvin stars falls to disk edge in connection with transparence of stellar atmosphere. Their absolute luminosity depends on two factors:

- Density of interstellar gases in Space, environmental a star.
- Value of a gravitational hole that is saved stellar mass.

In spite of assertions of modern astrophysics it is necessary having greater mass and higher angular velocity for any star with age, instead of smaller, because mass and moment are got by star in process of accretion only.

Fig. 1. A photo of Betelgeuse (a) from [41],
(b) – the same snapshot with extreme enlarged contrast for delimitation of the star,
(c) – through transparence of the star; (d) - temperature as a function of stellar radius (depth of gas layers).

The pulsing giants and super giants are Kelvin stars coming nearer to the virial threshold of stability. Unlike the modern astrophysics thinks of them, it is not merging through Rosh surface stars, but, on the contrary, breaking up or close to decay stars.

The reason of its variability is an instability caused by excess of a kinetic energy. This energy is gained by them from accreted masses of interstellar gas. If that gas permanently arrives with velocity greater than velocity of dissipation of its kinetic energy got at fall in gravitational hole of the star in heat (radiation), there is an acceleration of gyration of a star and at the particular moment there is partitioning the star on two stars scattered from each other with great velocity (the "runner stars").

Sub-dwarfs are Kelvin stars that is star of the «population II», turned out of gas clouds and lost inflow of accretion material. Those stars are gradually compressed radiating less and less light and on properties coming nearer to white dwarfs.

The permanent source of Kelvin stars. Existence and stationary origin of Kelvin stars filling all ellipsoidal volume of a galaxy is caused to permanent inflow of hydrogen-helium mixture from intergalactic Space. As a matter of fact it is one of types proto-stars, born and dying on our eyes, in conditions of Milky Way practically stationary during many billions years.

By study of many astronomers was set that on periphery of Milky Way the protons and alpha-particles prevail. There was found out that observed in halo and galactic corona the dust of gauged size 10-7m is the free electrons, which have been stretched up to radius of Rydberg in conditions of absence of exterior electric field [46]. Thus, the initial intergalactic broth consists of the practically not unchangeable yields of explosion of galaxies.

Inside galactic halo these particles repeatedly collide and transfer in states of neutral atomic hydrogen and neutral helium. In direction to centre of Milky Way there are less ionized particles. In neighborhoods of the Sun already half of atomic hydrogen integrated in molecules H2. Closer to centre of Milky Way the molecular hydrogen prevails above atomic.

Globular clusters. As the Kelvin stars are formed in a place of thick clouds of hydrogen, their formation frequently goes not alone, but in a cluster. Those clusters often look like balls. They are formed in case of excess of a density of distribution of stars higher some critical, when all stars of the future cluster turn out to be in their common gravitational field, and their relative velocities appear less than escape velocity.

The globular clusters are dynamically stable star systems. Three features give stability for a globular cluster:

- Usual property of substance to be not exposed of gravitational field between other gravitating bodies, that is subtraction of forces of gravitation creating by bodies located on both sides from this.
- Presence of gravitational hole created by the cluster.
- Presence of interstellar gas around of a globular cluster.

The first feature does not allow for star to stay long inside a cluster, where the forces of gravitation fall, and the path curvature decreases, pushing out a star outside. The second feature holds a star in a potential hole of a cluster reducing its velocity at attempt to leave from a gravitational hole. Third feature is a source of growing of a globular cluster and its brightness determined by quantity of arrival of gas. In figure 2 the cut of a globular cluster and forces effective on a separate star are shown. The thick globular cluster frequently has density of stellar distribution inside below than surface density for because of diminution of forces of gravitation, linearization and instability of trajectories of stars inside the cluster. Having appeared in a thick cloud of gas, the globular cluster does not require it further for own stable existence. In subsequent, the inflow of gas has only an effect for a level of a brightness of stars of the cluster.

Consecutively the globular clusters are the first type of star associations, at which merging in a consequence are formed galaxies. As against opinion of XX century astrophysicists, globular clusters are not the most long-lived star formations. If their age is estimated in 15 - 30 billions years, the age of galaxies is billions. The globular clusters are again and again formed in the eternal and stationary Universe. It is not a relict. For their occurrence and growing the presence of clouds of hydrogen is necessary only. The astronomers see this process and nowadays.

The elliptic galaxies differ from globular clusters only in scale. In comparison with spiral galaxies they are young formations (tens and hundred billions years).

As a matter of fact there is no legible boundary between globular clusters and elliptic galaxies. Gravitational field for objects of such size does not submit strictly to the law of inverse quadrates of distance, as for small objects which are not changing parameters of aether. In connection with terminating fluidity of an ether and major sizes of a galaxy the gravitational field inside them submits to the laws of hydrodynamics of usual fluids. Therefore in due course in them the spiral vortex arises, and they take the form of spiral galaxies.

Fig. 2 Globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341).
(a) - photo of a globular cluster, (b) – distribution of stars and interstellar gas,
(c) - dynamics of a trajectory of a star outside of and inside a cluster;
(d) – a shape of gravitational field of a globular cluster determining stellar trajectories.

The spiral galaxies. During their existence all elliptic galaxies become spiral. Except for the hydrodynamic factor this is promoted by that the part of stars of an elliptic galaxy enters a state of thermonuclear instability and blow up supernovae of the first type (SN I).

The explosions of supernovae fill the volume of the galaxy by an interstellar dust. As against hydrogen and helium the dust of supernovae practically does not submit to the gas laws. It has high "molecular" mass and low temperature of dust particles.

But it submits to the same laws as other massive bodies on an orbit. The pressure of halo gas brakes and gradually supersedes an interstellar dust to the galactic plane rotaried with orbital velocity. Particles of dust having velocity equal to velocity of surrounding media within galactic plane do not feel inhibiting action. As a matter of fact, the spiral galaxy consists of two enclosed galaxies: elliptic (halo, the «population II»)and spiral disk with arms (stars of the Main Sequence, the «population I»).

Galaxies with active nuclei. Growing old, the spiral galaxies dress by heavy stars transferring in other phase states - quasars of different generations. About this process the reader can examine in papers [41, 47 and 48]. During their existence stars of the Main Sequence go very slowly to point of supernova explosion. Speed of this process depends on interstellar gas and dust density, strongly varying in a place. The reminder of explosion is a pulsar (neutron star). If the star does not blow up, it transfers in a state of quasar of first generation. Then a quasar of first generation transfers in quasar of second generation and so on...

Radio galaxies and terminating of the extragalactic cycle. During an aging of a galaxy it more and more dresses by quasars. This process transmutes it into a radio galaxy.

Eventually, at centre of a radio galaxy the critical amount of quasars of different types collects. By reason of their collision the explosion of galaxy happens. It scatters in neutrons, alpha-particles and electromagnetic waves. In ~1000 seconds (time of a half-decay) the free neutrons break up to protons and electrons. The hydrogen-helium broth which has stayed after explosion of a galaxy serves a material for formation of new galaxies.

Extragalactic cycle of substance of the Universe occupies not ridiculous Friedman-Einstein billions, but many and many trillions years.

Galactic circulation of substance

«God has created the man from ashes and He again returns him in ashes.
[Syrah 17:1]

As against extragalactic circulation of substance covering meta-galactic Space, the galactic circulation makes inside a galaxy. There is another source of substance. It is not a perishing galaxy, but the perishing stars that is observed as the phenomenon of supernovae.

Supernova stars. As it was already noted, during the existence of a star it is slowly or very slowly that depends on strongly varying concentration of interstellar substance, grow in mass, coming nearer to a critical mass of a nuclear detonation. If the requirements for this were executed, there is an explosion, which the modern astrophysics terms “supernova”. While Kelvin stars blow up in supernova SN I, the stars of the Main Sequence containing essential quantity of metals and radiating in basic for account aether energy, blow up in supernova SN II. In Milky Way as well as in other galaxies supernova blows up approximately once per century that is the galactic circulation of substance in a galaxy consisting of 1011 stars occupies about 10 trillion years.

Interstellar substance. Modern astrophysicists are engaged in search of mythical «dark matter», speculative imaginations and hoaxes about it. Actually, the secret of «dark matter» is not a secret. The considerable part of galactic mass is interstellar dust which is not giving reflections, or essential light absorption, or lines in spectrum. This dust is a yield of supernovae explosions. Its composition is close to terrestrial basalts. Basically, basalts are substance of supernovae explosions. This dust causes comets, planetary bodies and stars of the Main Sequence.

Comets and condensate proto-stars. Interstellar dust is a special formation. At a stage of aggregation of micro-particles of dust it forms dendritic structures similar snares. The same mechanisms are acting. There are electric field and Van der Waals forces. The molecules of water and hydroxyl, in an abundance generated after explosion supernova stick to these "snares". Owing to the branched dendritic structure of dust there are plenty of other volatile matters including light gases.

Now it is not a cosmic dust (cryonite), but micro comets, the original Space snow, superficially saturated by gases in solution. Dust component in it is already in minority. The interstellar Space is so sated with microcomets that they are guests in nearby Space and upper terrestrial atmosphere often. By high-altitude stratospheric taking they are explored already some decades ago. Their composition is ice with an impurity of dust of different chemical elements on the average relevant to basalts. Growing together in condition of zero gravity into larger aggregates, "snowballs", these micro-comets form the imposing bodies frequently visiting our Solar System. There are not only microcomets.

The comets of significant size visit the Solar System and the Earth often. A remainder of gigantic comet absorbed by Saturn in geological recent past we can see as snow circles of this planet. In 1908 the gigantic comet has fell in Siberia. In tradition we name it "Tungus meteorite". However, according the data of many researchers including solving results of microphysical and chemical analysis made by Russian planetologist Eugene Dmitriev this is a comet [49].

Most recently we observed Schumacher – Levi comet falling on Jupiter.

There is an ensemble of "asteroids" having the comet past in Solar System. Their mass density not exceeding 1 kg/dm3 does not leave the doubts in that. As it is stated by study of Eugene Dmitriev, comets are more frequent guests of our planets than was considered hitherto. The direct chemical studies of comet material made by him [50], have shown that composition of comets though varies, but does not differ from terrestrial and lunar types of basalt that allows to do cosmogonic conclusion about generality of origin of celestial bodies of galactic disk ("population I"). All material of planets and stars is product of comets accretion. The lasts are product of supernovae.

Let’s note, that the interstellar origin of comets was discovered by Johannes Kepler 400 years ago, but his arguments have seemed untenable to scientific crowd, and they follow the false theories of Halley, Oort and others till now. In astrophysics till now a myth contradicting to the law of matter conservation, about local, inside Solar System origin of comets, and contradicting to the laws of stable motion in gravitational astronomy myth about comet belt behind last planet are reigning.

Wandering in boundless Space during trillions years, the comets grow on the sly until growing in the size of Jupiter. In other case they are captured in gravitational holes of other celestial bodies becoming their part.

So the second series of proto-stars, the condensed, the originating not from gas of extragalactic origin as stars of Kelvin, but from «Space snow», the micro-comets and comets is formed. This is beginning of the Main Sequence, which graceful line Hertzsprung and Russel building the diagram “color - brightness” have seen hundred years ago.

Stars of the Main Sequence. The area of galactic disk saturated in gaseous complexes, cryonite and permanently generated comets is the cradle of celestial bodies of Jovian type. All of them have similar chemical composition determined by source, the comets, which are children of supernovae explosions.

When they grow up to the size of Jupiter, the phenomenon of ethereous heating described in [40] begins to work in them. As a vacuum cleaner gradually agglomerating smaller space bodies, they grow and are transmuted in brown dwarfs, then red dwarfs.

There is a sluggish advance to more massive stars of the Main Sequence.

As it was predicted many years ago by Wilhelm Herschel and by Theodor Landscheidt recently, and as it is proved by the author, the stars of the Main Sequence should have a solid kern. The size and behavior of this kern define the parameters of a star in many aspects.

More often a star has planetary system that is the statistical Titz – Bode Rule or Rule of Giordano Bruno. It is necessary to note that Giordano Bruno was first who has specified necessity of existence of planets around of stars. This rule is statistical because the niches determined by Titz – Bode Rule are filled by arriving comets stochastically; see description in paper [51].

In a presence of planetary system, the kern makes motions because of perturbations on the part of planets. At its motion inside a star there is an intensive exchange of substance between kern and atmosphere of the star varying parameters of the atmosphere and dissolving the kern. Otherwise the kern gradually grows, absorbing the atmosphere.

The nuclear reactions really occur on these stars, but it is not mythical pp-reaction. As in yields of decay supernova there are deuterium and tritium, uranium and thorium, the requirements of nuclear detonation on stars sporadically occur. On such stars as the Sun it is revealing in "solar activity", the solar flashes and magnetic storms. The share of a nuclear energy does not exceed 1% of solar power [52]. On red and brown dwarfs this share usually is higher therefore they frequently are "improper" variable stars.

Thus, as against Kelvin stars, the basic source of energy of stars of the Main Sequence is the aether, and directly it is the asymmetry of an exchange of energy of moving particles of substance with aether. However a presence or an absence of exterior (accretion of gas) and interior (the nuclear activity) perturbations determines the change of their destiny.

White dwarfs. In case of absence or small disturbance from planetary system the kern of a star grows up to total absorption of atmosphere of the star, and it becomes white dwarf. Unlike that the modern astrophysics preaches white dwarfs are solid celestial bodies. More correctly, they are super solid bodies that are the substance of white dwarfs except for a hyperfine residual atmosphere is in the special phase state, the super-compressed. Their features are described in papers [47, 53, 54 and 55]. Here let’s note that this phase state is characterized by the destroyed outside electronic shell. Therefore substance in the super compressed state does not develop the chemical properties.

Neutron stars. Apparent as pulsars the reminders of supernovae explosions are well investigated already. It is possible only to add that alongside with quasars the neutron stars are the basic population of radio galaxies. Being a meta-stable super compressed state of substance, they are the sources of gamma quanta, electrons and alpha-particles, which are permanently emitted from their surface. As a matter of fact it is micro-quasars of last generation having restricted life time. With the help of hyper-pressure this kind of substance is already obtained in laboratory [56].

Quasars. Not always the life of star comes to an end by supernova explosion. In case of malfunction in requirements of nuclear detonation of a star, it comes to the requirement of transition of its substance into the super compressed state of the following phase state.

About the special super compressed states of substance, when electronic shells of the atom become consecutively rumpled, was written in [47]. Everyone subsequent of a series of super compressed states is characterized by lesser on 1 amount of electronic shells, which have saved at given hyper-pressure. According to amount of electronic shells of atom there is a relevant amount of super compressed phase states and types of quasars, each of subsequent essentially more massive of previous.

It is possible to consider white dwarfs as the zero type of quasars, taking place in the super compressed state of destroyed valence shell.

As it was already noted, quasars are not exotic relicts of the past Universe. It is post-stellar stage of existence of celestial bodies. They are in each spiral galaxy including Milky Way (Sgr. A W). The galaxies with active nuclei have a set of them. By courageous diligences of Halton Arp, the alive classic of astrophysics, the question on localization of quasars is solved.

Besides in Milky Way there are quasars of early types. They are observed as X-ray sources, which more than hundred are discovered already. The observation of them in an optical band is inconvenient, as in general quasars, and the generation I in particular, have tiny radius as well as white dwarfs. Besides the Sun and the quasars are in the plane of Milky Way and fenced from each other by stratum of dust strongly absorbing the light.

Conclusions

As a result of application of the ethereous approach, developed by the author to problems of cosmogony and cosmology and ordering of the discovered phenomena the following is found out:

- The Universe is in a steady state down to apparent horizon, and on the data of the analysis of dynamics of its subsystems - as a minimum, many trillions years.

- Modern paradigm of consecutive evolution of the Universe with partitioning it on pre-stellar era, proto-stellar era, era of birth of galaxies etc. is false. Really all processes go collaterally at the same time.

- The substance of the Universe is subjected of two basic circulations: extragalactic and galactic.

- The extragalactic circulation transits the following stages:

- Formation of gas clouds from "primary" extragalactic mix of protons and alpha-particles.
- Formation of stars of «population II», the Kelvin stars, frequently, as members of globular clusters.
- Formation of elliptic galaxies from globular clusters.
- Transformation of elliptic galaxies into spiral galaxies.
- Degeneration of spiral galaxies into active - nuclear, and then into radio galaxies.
- Self-fracture of radio galaxies with exhaust of protons and alpha-particles.

- The galactic circulation transits the following stages:

- Aggregation of cryonite of gas-and-dust clouds into microcomets.
- Sluggish growing of microcomets and their accretion by larger space bodies: comets, planets and stars.
- Formation of Jovian type planets from substance of comets.
- Growing of Jovian type planets up to brown dwarfs and further upon the Main Sequence in accordance with mass increasing.
- Achievement of a critical mass and happening of supernova explosion or transition into quasar state.
- Dispelling of yields of supernova explosion on a galaxy as dust and gas.

- The stars of «population II» are Kelvin stars gaining energy from kinetic and gravitational energy through accretion of interstellar gas, and having very low, less than 10000 ºK temperature in all volume and very low mass density, in order one milligram on cubic meter. There are no nuclear reactions in them.

- The pulsing stars of «population II» are stars breaking up because of excess of the threshold of virial stability.

- Quasars are post-stellar states of substance, not proto-stellar. They exist in all spiral, active - nuclear and radio galaxies.

- The detection of early stages of quasars is restricted to their small size and localization in a dusty plane of Milky Way.

- White dwarfs, quasars and neutron stars are celestial bodies in super compressed phase states.

Acknowledgments

The author feels the duty to recall the great continuator of Galileo’s and Kepler’s spirit, prominent German heliophysicist, ecologist and predictor of our time PhD Theodor Landscheidt, whose works and spirit of unlimited study inspired me on greater work and in considerable degrees prompted the correct way of scientific search.

The author is obliged voice for gratitude to alive classic of astrophysics PhD Halton Arp (Max Plank Astrophysical Institute, Munich), whose works on localizations of quasars and nature of redshift have influenced greatly upon my glances not only in cosmology and cosmogony, but also in optics and nuclear physics, having permitted unadulterated vision of Universe, stated in present work.

The author expresses the gratitude to Russian planetologist Eugene Dmitriev, whose prominent works on recovering the history of Martian atmosphere and in discovering the comet material on terrestrial surface, help to take a new look at evolution of planets and have inspired me on present study.

The author also expresses thanks to Arcadi Solunia, chief engineer of The "KazSat" Mission Control Center (Kazakhstan), PhD Felix Gorbatzewich (Kola Scientific Center, Apatity, Russia), PhD Juri Galaev (Kharkov Research Institute of Radiophysics, Ukraine) for useful remarks and moral support, and to all other colleagues, taken a part in discussing the present paper.

Karim Khaidarov
Bourabai - Almaty, July 7,  2007.

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Знаете ли Вы, что такое "Большой Взрыв"?
Согласно рупору релятивистской идеологии Википедии "Большой взрыв (англ. Big Bang) - это космологическая модель, описывающая раннее развитие Вселенной, а именно - начало расширения Вселенной, перед которым Вселенная находилась в сингулярном состоянии. Обычно сейчас автоматически сочетают теорию Большого взрыва и модель горячей Вселенной, но эти концепции независимы и исторически существовало также представление о холодной начальной Вселенной вблизи Большого взрыва. Именно сочетание теории Большого взрыва с теорией горячей Вселенной, подкрепляемое существованием реликтового излучения..."
В этой тираде количество нонсенсов (бессмыслиц) больше, чем количество предложений, иначе просто трудно запутать сознание обывателя до такой степени, чтобы он поверил в эту ахинею.
На самом деле взорваться что-либо может только в уже имеющемся пространстве.
Без этого никакого взрыва в принципе быть не может, так как "взрыв" - понятие, применимое только внутри уже имеющегося пространства. А раз так, то есть, если пространство вселенной уже было до БВ, то БВ не может быть началом Вселенной в принципе. Это во-первых.
Во-вторых, Вселенная - это не обычный конечный объект с границами, это сама бесконечность во времени и пространстве. У нее нет начала и конца, а также пространственных границ уже по ее определению: она есть всё (потому и называется Вселенной).
В третьих, фраза "представление о холодной начальной Вселенной вблизи Большого взрыва" тоже есть сплошной нонсенс.
Что могло быть "вблизи Большого взрыва", если самой Вселенной там еще не было? Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.

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