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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 18, 2008
GALACTIC EVOLUTION
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

ABSTRACT. This paper is expansion and improvement of the previous paper "Stellar Evolution". The sight at evolution of planets, stars, quasi-stellar objects and galaxies is systematized. Details of galactic and extragalactic circulations of substance in the Universe are viewed.

" I will deliver him; I will protect him, because he knows My name".
[Psalm 91]

Basing on a concept of structure of the Universe offered by Giordano Bruno [1], a concept of evolution of the Universe constructed by Immanuel Kant [2], a concept of the stationary Universe developed by Fred Hoyle [3,4], on the study which have been carried out by others classics of astronomy, including A. A. Belopolski [5], I. I. Campbell [6], R. J. Trumpler [7, 8], E. Hubble [9], Baade [10], E. Salpeter [11], H. C. Arp [13-23], J. and E.M. Burbidges [3,12,19,20], who explored properties of stars and galaxies, also utilising a rich actual data accumulated by astronomers for last decades, and also on the concept of aether offered by the author, let's try to construct a logically clear pattern of the Universe of stars and galaxies in its stationary development.

Unfortunately, despite of sufficiency of the accumulated data, the graceful pattern of developing Universe is garbled till now and it is latent from a look of astrophysics. So together with the description of this pattern the criticism of traditional astrophysical beliefs is given.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
AGE OF THE UNIVERSE The myth about terminating age of the Universe
The eternal and infinite Universe
BIRTH OF THE SUBSTANCE Myths about world creation
Kinds of the physical substance
Beginning of extragalactic circulation of the substance
ORIGIN OF STARS AND GALAXIES Jean's myth about initial stars
Kelvin stars
Globular clusters
Elliptic galaxies
Spiral galaxies
Myths about the nature of spiral arms
The real mechanism of spiral arms
ENERGETICS OF STARS The starry-thermonuclear myth
Energy of the aether
Energy of fall
Nuclear activity of stars
Validation of deuterium - tritium fusion
STELLAR EVOLUTION Evolutionary myths of astrophysics
Stars of population II
Stars of population I
Planets and planetary systems
Destruction of stars
Evolution in spiral galaxies
QUASARS The black holes myth
Myths about quasars
Quasars structure and generations
The nature of quasar redshifts
Quantification of quasar redshifts
Temperature of quasars
UNIVERSAL CIRCULATIONS Circulation of energy in the Universe
Extragalactic circulation of material
Galactic circulation of material

Conclusions

As a result of application of the ethereal approach developed by the author to problems of a cosmogony and a cosmology and to ordering the discovered phenomena the following is found out:

- The Universe is in a steady state up to observable horizon, and according to the analysis of dynamics of its subsystems, it is staying in this state during many billions years at least.

- The modern paradigm of consecutive evolution of the Universe with its partitioning on prior to stellar era, the era of proto-stars, the era of a birth of galaxies, etc., is false. Really all processes go parallel.

- The substance of the Universe is subjected to two basic circulations: extragalactic and galactic.

- Extragalactic circulation passes following stages:

- Formation of clouds H-4He gas from a "primary" extragalactic intermixture of protons and alpha-particles;

- Formation of stars of population II, the Kelvin stars, often, in structure of globular clusters;

- Elliptic galaxies formation from globular clusters;

- Transformation of elliptic galaxies in spiral galaxies;

- Degeneration of spiral galaxies into active galaxies and radiogalaxies;

- Self-destruction of radiogalaxies with emission of protons and alpha-particles.

- Galactic circulation transits following stages:

- Aggregation of a cryoconite of gas-and-dust clouds in microcomets;

- Growth of microcomets and their accretion larger space bodies: comets, planets and stars;

- Formation of Jovian type planets from cometary material;

- Growth of Jovian type planets up to brown dwarfs and further along the Main Sequence in process of magnification of mass;

- Achievement of a critical mass and supernova explosion or transition in a state of quasar;

- A dispelling of yields of supernova explosion on a galaxy in the form of a cryoconite and gas.

- Stars of population II are Kelvin stars gaining energy from the kinetic and gravitational energy through accretion of interstellar gas, the stars having very low temperature (less than 8000°K at the center) and very low density, in order milligrams on cubic meter. There are no any nuclear activity, nor fusion, nor fission.

- Pulsing stars of population II are stars breaking up from virial stability threshold.

- Quasars are post-stellar states of material, but not prior to stellar stage. They exist in all spiral, active and radiogalaxies.

- Detection of early types of quasars is restricted to its small size and location in dusty plane of the Galaxy.

- The supercompressed phase states of material play the great role in evolution of celestial bodies.

- Spiral galactic arms are formed due to a shock wave of moving with orbital velocity gas. Arms have low velocity.

- Milky Way has three spiral arms, which are intercrossed by stars of the disk. These crosses are characterized by global accidents.

- Stars in arms are not young stars, but stars with active accretion.

- Galactic baldge is radial streams of arm material, formed in a place of cancellation of elevating force of galactic shock wave.

Acknowlegments

The author considers as the duty to donate a tribute of storage to people, who have radically influenced on his views having turned them in a direction of the stated paradigm:

- To Dr. Otto Oesterle, (+2002, Germany), whose ideas in the field of the theory of temperature and aether have amazed me still a quarter century ago, at the first acquaintance to him in the Kazakh Mineral Raw Institute, Alma-Ata;

- To Dr. Theodor Landscheidt (+2004), the great continuer of spirit of Galileo and Kepler, the outstanding German solar physicist, the ecologist and predictor, whose spirit of which unlimited research inspired the author on greater work and prompted the correct trajectory of scientific search;

- To just left from us Nikolay Noskov (+2008), the wonderful person and true physicist, whose inspiration and constant encouragement have given the force to the author in his hard struggle.

The author is obliged to state the gratitude to people who supported his research in the field of astrophysics:

- Russian planetologist Eugene Dmitriev, whose outstanding works on restitution of history of Martian atmosphere and discovering cometary material on the Earth, have assisted to look at evolution of planets newly and have inspired the author on the present research.

The author also expresses the gratitude for discussion of the problems touched in the present paper and moral support to Ph.D. F.F. Gorbatzevich (Kola Scientific Center of RAS, Apatites), Professor, Ph.D. A.A. Potapov (Institute of Systems and Theory of Control of RAS Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia), Chief Engineer of "KazSat AG" A.Y. Solunia (Kazakhstan), to participants of scientific Internet-forums: Lyndon Ashmore (physicist from UK), Boris Andreyev (Russia) and others.

Karim Khaidarov
Borovoye - Almaty, July, 18th 2008г.

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Знаете ли Вы, что "тёмная материя" - такая же фикция, как черная кошка в темной комнате. Это не физическая реальность, но фокус, подмена.
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