main page   list of papers   library  

© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, December 30, 2008

THE ORIGIN AND DYNAMICS OF IMPACT METAMORPHISM

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

Abstract. On the base of study of morphology and statistics of impact formation on the Moon and other planets the source of impactial metamorphism is shown. Dynamics of forming the impact structures general for all planets of terrestrial type is shown.

C O N T E N T S

Foreword
The Myth about Protoplanetary Cloud and its Present Remainder, Oort cloud
Real Sources of celestial bodies mass
The Composition of prestellar stage of accretion of material of galactic disk
Salpeter Mass Function and validation of unceasing accretion theory
The Function of Moon Covering by Impact Craters
Metheoritic Myths and Cometary Reality of Cosmos
Dynamics of Impact Rocks Metamorphism
Categorization of Impact Formations
Volcanic Myths and Impact Origin of Lunar Lavas
The Rate of Accretion on Planets and Stars
Causes of Asymmetry of Moon
Particularities of Impact Metamorphism on Planets with Atmosphere

Conclusions

There are following results of present study.

1. The sources of accretion mass of Moon and planets on more than 99,9% is are comets. Modern "meteoritic theory" of origins of lunar craters is false. Adherents of "volcanic theory" of lunar craters do not understand the cases of magmata eruptions, which have purely impact nature.

2. It is possible to divide lunar impact structures into 8 classes: chalices, circuses, mares, craters, diatremes, end-to-end craters, raws and valleys.

3. Lunar magmatism has purely impact nature, when appearance of magma in one case is due to turning the energy of impact to the heat energy of rocks, and in the other case it is outpouring the material of lunar fluid core on surface through diatreme. There are four types of magmata effusion.

4. Mares have the same cause as circuses but differ from them by size and filling of lava poured out from diatremes. The lava field exist in circuses formed by comets with rocky core overpunching diatreme, through which magma is poured out.

5. In the scale of many billion years accretion goes continuously, but in smaller scale it is a periodic pulsed function of Solar System movement through galactic arms, the main suppliers of cometary mass.

6. On base of discovery of accretion process continuity the author found the way of estimation of age of any area of lunar surfaces on its filling by craters.

7. The real age of lunar craters, circuses and mares much less than accepted in modern astrophysics and it has statistical periodicity of order 73 million years.

8. At collision of comet with planet two termal explosions occur. One of them occurs on surface, when easy melting part of comet bursts. Second occurs at the depth, when refractory comet core consisting of crystalline rocks decays.

9. The impact bodies colliding with Moon and Earth have two main modes of velocity distribution: planetary, up to 72 km/s and galactic, about 200 km/s.

10. At impact of large comets of galactic velocity about 200 km/s on the near lunar side the mares, the huge areas refined from all jaggies with bearing of material from surface for limits of horizon of explosion are forming. Rocky refractory part of comets cans moves through lunar body. For that it is necessary to have diameter of rocky part of comet not less 20 km. The surge stream melt occurs in place of end-to-end exit on thousand kilometres and even it may fall to the Earth. .

11. Salpeter mass function can be continued aside small masses up down to comets and micro comets observed in atmosphere of the Earth in the manner of meteoroids.

12. There is the fundamental function of mass for planetary systems dM/dt = M, similar Salpeter function saving attitude of masses of planets during a long time of evolution of planetary system.

13. The difference of altitude of lunar fare side and near side is defined by double greater accretion to far side of Moon because of gravitational influences of the Earth.

14. Accretion time constant in Solar system is about two trillion years. Then for this time of planet and Sun enlarge its mass in 2.7 times.

15. Diatremes, kimberlite tubes are observed on the terrestrial crust. There are objects of impact metamorphism of terrestrial rocks at influence of refractory core of celestial bodies fallen to the Earth at the speed about 200 km/s. Arising of diamonds is a result of influence impact hyper pressure on terrestrial graphite and coal.

16. The terrestrial hydrosphere is a result of comet accretion containing great mass of water.

17. Mars, other cool planets and their satellites must have powerful hydrosphere in the manner of oceans covered by water ice.

Acknowledgments

The author expresses its gratitude to
- compilers of SAI - Dubna Catalog "Morphology Catalog of Moon Craters" under general edition of V.V. Shevtschenko, MSI, 1987, without which present work will be impossible,
- creators of Apollo Mission Photo Gallery for given possibility of study of Moon in close distance,
- authors of miraculous computer program "Virtual Moon Atlas" Christian Legrend and Patric Shevalley [17], using of which has greatly accelerated study of Moon surface,
- Russian planetologist Eugene Dmitriev, the veteran of Design Bureau "Salute" of Khrunichev Cosmic Centre, Moscow), inspirited the author on study of impact events,
- Timur Kryachko (Moscow) for valuable consultations on astronomical equipment and help in its aquisition,
- participant of Bourabai Research forum Boris Andreyev, taken part in active discussing on the problem of present paper.

Karim Khaidarov,
December 30, 2008

References

  1. Kant I. Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie Des Himmels, Kцnigsberg, 1755.
  2. Лаплас П. Изложение системы мира". - Париж, 1796.
  3. Baade W. The resolution of Messier 32, NGC 205, and the central region of the Andromeda Nebula. - Ap.J. 100, 137-46, 1944.
  4. Sofue Y., Tutui Y., Honma M., Tomita A., Takamiya T., Koda J., Takeda Y. Central Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies. - The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 523, Issue 1, pp. 136-146, 1999.
  5. Хайдаров К.А. Галактическая эволюция. – BRI, Боровое – Алматы, 2008.
  6. http://www.apolloarchive.com/apollo_gallery.html - Apollo Mission Gallery
  7. Дмитриев Е.В. Существуют ли эруптивные кометы? // Межд. конф. "Космическая защита Земли". Тезисы докл. Евпатория, Крым, Украина, 11-15 сент. 2000. С. 36-37.
  8. Хайдаров К.А. Эфирный ветер. – BRI, Алматы, 2004.
  9. Salpeter E., “The Luminosity Function and Stellar Evolution,” Ap.J. 121, 161-67 (1955).
  10. Морфологический каталог кратеров Луны / под общ. ред. Шевченко В. В. – Изд. МГУ, 1987.
  11. Хайдаров К.А. Происхождение Солнца и планет. – BRI, Алматы, 2004.
  12. Gifford A.C. The mountains of the Moon: New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, v.7, p. 129-142, 1924.
  13. Gifford, A.C. The Origin of the Surface Features of the Moon. - New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 11, pp. 319-327, 1930.
  14. Хайдаров К. А. Строение небесных тел. – BRI, Боровое, 2004.
  15. Механизм возникновения кимберлитовых труб. - Виртуальный мир N 2, 2006.
  16. Нигматзянов Р.С. Кольцевые структуры как импактные кратеры – КГУ, Казань, 2007.
  17. Legrend Ch., Chevalley P. Virtual Moon Atlas v3.5 – http://www.astrosurf.com/avl, 2008.
  18. Дмитриев Е.В. Кратко о тектитах. – http://bourabai.kz/tectites.htm, 2004
  19. Дмитриев Е.В. Что могло выпасть из Тунгусской кометы?. – // Сибирская юбилейная научная конференция "100 лет "Тунгусскому метеориту", "50 лет КСЭ", 1-3 мая 2008 г.
  20. Патомский кратер появился не позже середины XVIII столетия. - "БайкалНарОбраз: образование и наука в Сибири", 2006.

main page   list of papers   library  

Сайт ПДСНПСР. Если ты патриот России - жми сюда!


Знаете ли Вы, что в 1974 - 1980 годах профессор Стефан Маринов из г. Грац, Австрия, проделал серию экспериментов, в которых показал, что Земля движется по отношению к некоторой космической системе отсчета со скоростью 360±30 км/с, которая явно имеет какой-то абсолютный статус. Естественно, ему не давали нигде выступать и он вынужден был начать выпуск своего научного журнала "Deutsche Physik", где объяснял открытое им явление. Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.

НОВОСТИ ФОРУМАФорум Рыцари теории эфира
Рыцари теории эфира
 18.11.2017 - 23:27: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> РУССКИЙ МИР - Карим_Хайдаров.
05.10.2017 - 11:03: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> Проблема государственного терроризма - Карим_Хайдаров.
04.10.2017 - 15:26: ЭКОНОМИКА И ФИНАНСЫ - Economy and Finances -> ПРОБЛЕМА КРИМИНАЛИЗАЦИИ ЭКОНОМИКИ - Карим_Хайдаров.
04.10.2017 - 05:02: Беседка - Chatter -> "Зенит"ы с "Протон"ами будут падать - Карим_Хайдаров.
03.10.2017 - 18:16: ВОСПИТАНИЕ, ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ, ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> Просвещение от О.Н. Четвериковой - Карим_Хайдаров.
03.10.2017 - 07:42: ВОСПИТАНИЕ, ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ, ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> Просвещение от Вазгена Авагяна - Карим_Хайдаров.
03.10.2017 - 07:24: ЦИТАТЫ ЧУЖИХ ФОРУМОВ - Outside Quotings -> ЗА НАМИ БЛЮДЯТ - Карим_Хайдаров.
03.10.2017 - 05:48: Беседка - Chatter -> WHO IS WHO - КТО ЕСТЬ КТО - Карим_Хайдаров.
02.10.2017 - 19:04: АСТРОФИЗИКА - Astrophysics -> Апериодическая комета C/2014 Q2 Lovejoy - Карим_Хайдаров.
02.10.2017 - 14:57: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> РАСЧЕЛОВЕЧИВАНИЕ ЧЕЛОВЕКА. КОМУ ЭТО НАДО? - Карим_Хайдаров.
01.10.2017 - 13:58: Беседка - Chatter -> ЭПИСТОЛЯРНАЯ ФИЗИКА - Карим_Хайдаров.
01.10.2017 - 07:23: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> НАСАтые астропиндосы - Карим_Хайдаров.
Bourabai Research Institution home page

Боровское исследовательское учреждение - Bourabai Research Bourabai Research Institution