1. .., .. (1979). .. ., .: , c. 65-80
  2. .., .. (1979). Σ .. , .: , . 126-148
  3. .. . (1980). .. :
  4. .. (1987). . , Issue 46, . 154-171
  5. .. . (1991). , . ޣ , , , 128 .
  6. .., .. (1995). . . ., Vol.30, No.1, P. 33-36
  7. Masaitis V.L., Shafranovsky G.I., Fedorova I.G., Koivisto M., Korhonen J.V. (1998). Lappajarvi astrobleme: The first find of impact diamonds on the fennoscandian shield . Lunar and Planetary Science. Vol. 29. Abstr. Pap. 29th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf., March 16-20, Houston (Tex.): NASA: Lyndon B. Johnson Space Cent., P. 1171
  8. .., .., . (1999). . . ., Vol.40, No.10, .1506-1510
  9. .., .., .., ., .., ., . (1999). , . . . . - , Vol.128, No.5, . 25-33
  10. Badjukov D.D., Raitala J. (2006). Ni-containing sulfides in impactites of the Lappajarvi, Saaksjarvi, Suvavasvesi SOuth, and Paasselka meteorite craters . Bull. Geol. Soc. Finl. , P. 12
  11. Graham, Bevan and Hutchison (1985). Catalogue of Meteorites. 4th Edition
  12. Grieve R.A.F. (1987). Terrestrial impact structures. Ann.Rev.Earth Planet.Sci., Vol.15, p. 245-270
  13. (1988). Astronauts guide to terrestrial impact craters.. Space Shuttle Earth Observation Project, Lunar and Planetary Institute (March 1988).
  14. Uutela Anneli (1990). Proterozoic microfossils from the sedimentary rocks of the Lappajarvi impact crater . Bull. Geol. Soc. Finl., No.62, P. 115-121
  15. Pesonen L.J., Kukkonen I.T. (1991). The lake Lappajarvi impact site, central-west Finland. A review. Ann. geophys., Vol.9, No.58, P. 58
  16. Salonen Veli-Pekka, Eriksson Brita, Gronlund Tuulikki (1992). Pleistocene stratigraphy in the Lappajarvi meteorite crater in Ostrobothnia, Finland . Boreas, Vol.21, No.3, P. 253-269
  17. Uutela Anneli (1993). Paleozoic microfossils from the lake Lappajrvi impact crater, Western Finland. Abster. 2nd Balt. Stratigr. Conf., Vilnius, 9-14 May, 1993 , Vilnius, P. 105
  18. Hodge, Paul W., (1994). Meteorite craters and impact structures of the Earth. Cambridge University Press , 122 .
  19. Holker Th., Deutsch A. (1996). Geochemistry of impact melt rocks from the Lappajarvi (Finland) and Boltysh (Ukraine) impact structures. Role Impact Process. Geol. and Biol. Evol. Planet Earth: Int. Workshop, Postojna, Sept. 27 - Oct. 2, Ljubljana, P. 33-34
  20. Uutela Anneli (1998). Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era - new evidence from Ostrobothnia, Western Finland. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finl., Vol.70, No.1, P. 51-68
  21. Pratesi G., Cipriani C., Vishnevsky S., Lo Guidice A. (2002). FTIR spectroscopy study of impact diamonds . 18 General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association "Mineralogy for the New Millennium", Edingurgh, 1-6 Sept., 2002: IMA , Edinburgh: IMA, P. 202
  22. Jarmo Moilanen (2004). References.
  23. John G. Spray, Director PASSC (2005). Impact Structures listed by Name. Current total number of confirmed impact structures: 172 .
  24. Koivisto Marjatta (2006). Tracing impact craters by glacial samples in Finland. 40 ESLAB Symposium: 1 International Conference on Impact Cratering in the Solar System, Noordwijk, 8-12 May, 2006, Noordwijk: ESA, p.117
  25. Ohman T. (2006). Dark veinlets in the granitoids of Saarijarvi, Soderfjarden and Lappajarvi impact structures . Bull. Geol. Soc. Finl., P. 175
  26. Osinski Gordon R. (2006). The geological record of meteorite impacts. 40th ESLAB First International Conference on Impact Cratering in the Solar System, 8-12 May 2006., Noordwijk,The Netherlands
  27. Naumov M. (2006). IMPACT STRUCTURES: A KEY TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION OF THE FENNOSCANDIAN SHIELD DURING PHANEROZOIC
  28. ` `

Age of 77.3+-0.4 Ma was old argon dating. New age is 73.3+-5.3 Ma (U-Pd method).

Google Earth.

cm.
Darkest grey in the map is melt matrix breccia (=karnaite) lens. Next darkest grey is suevite and fragmental breccia. Lightest grey is siltstone and sandstone which fills the outhern part of depression made by impact.

Two yellow dots in NW corner of Karnansaari island are karnaite outcrops. Orange are in bottom of the map is Hietakangas sand pits. cm.

View from Pyhavuori-hill toward Karnansaari island and the point of impact. cm.


( " "):

(~18 ), . , . , , . Leiosphaeridia. , , . , - . . , , .
(Uutela Anneli, 1990).

(77 . ) 16 ~23 . , , . . . 218 : , , , . . - , .
(Pesonen L.J., Kukkonen I.T., 1991).

, (74 ). ( ) , .
(Salonen Veli-Pekka, Eriksson Brita, Gronlund Tuulikki, 1992).

., 3 .-. , 32,60-35,20 . 95% , 3% 2%
(Uutela Anneli, 1993).

25 5 , , 3 . 24 , , , , , . , . : , . .
( .., .., 1995).

, , . . TR, Sr Nd ( ) . , Rb K ( ). ( )
(Holker Th., Deutsch A., 1996).

, , ~ 180 . , , , . . . - . . . .
(Uutela Anneli, 1998).

. , . , ( ) . 60-140 , .
( .., .., ., 1999).

, , , , . , . . , . . , . .
( .., .., .., ., .., ., ., 1999).

(), () (). . 100-200 ( ) . , IaA-, IaB- Ib-. - , . C-H , H[2] (1650, 1555, 1405 1390 {-1})
(Pratesi G., Cipriani C., Vishnevsky S., Lo Guidice A., 2002).

. / Ni, Co, Cr, . Ni, Co . , . , . , , .
(Badjukov D.D., Raitala J., 2006).

- . 0,4 , 73,3
(Koivisto Marjatta, 2006)

( ) ( . ) , , ~1,5-2, ~6,4 ~17-23 , , ~1980-600, ~530 ~73 . . ., . , . >5 .
(Ohman T., 2006).




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