© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, December 30, 2008
THE ORIGIN AND DYNAMICS OF IMPACT METAMORPHISM
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia
Abstract. On the base of study of morphology and statistics of impact formation on the Moon and other planets the source of impactial metamorphism is shown. Dynamics of forming the impact structures general for all planets of terrestrial type is shown.
C O N T E N T S
The Myth about Protoplanetary Cloud and its Present Remainder, Oort cloud
Real Sources of celestial bodies mass
The Composition of prestellar stage of accretion of material of galactic disk
Salpeter Mass Function and validation of unceasing accretion theory
The Function of Moon Covering by Impact Craters
Metheoritic Myths and Cometary Reality of Cosmos
Dynamics of Impact Rocks Metamorphism
Categorization of Impact Formations
Volcanic Myths and Impact Origin of Lunar Lavas
The Rate of Accretion on Planets and Stars
Causes of Asymmetry of Moon
Particularities of Impact Metamorphism on Planets with Atmosphere
There are following results of present study.
1. The sources of accretion mass of Moon and planets on more than 99,9% is are comets. Modern "meteoritic theory" of origins of lunar craters is false. Adherents of "volcanic theory" of lunar craters do not understand the cases of magmata eruptions, which have purely impact nature.
2. It is possible to divide lunar impact structures into 8 classes: chalices, circuses, mares, craters, diatremes, end-to-end craters, raws and valleys.
3. Lunar magmatism has purely impact nature, when appearance of magma in one case is due to turning the energy of impact to the heat energy of rocks, and in the other case it is outpouring the material of lunar fluid core on surface through diatreme. There are four types of magmata effusion.
4. Mares have the same cause as circuses but differ from them by size and filling of lava poured out from diatremes. The lava field exist in circuses formed by comets with rocky core overpunching diatreme, through which magma is poured out.
5. In the scale of many billion years accretion goes continuously, but in smaller scale it is a periodic pulsed function of Solar System movement through galactic arms, the main suppliers of cometary mass.
6. On base of discovery of accretion process continuity the author found the way of estimation of age of any area of lunar surfaces on its filling by craters.
7. The real age of lunar craters, circuses and mares much less than accepted in modern astrophysics and it has statistical periodicity of order 73 million years.
8. At collision of comet with planet two termal explosions occur. One of them occurs on surface, when easy melting part of comet bursts. Second occurs at the depth, when refractory comet core consisting of crystalline rocks decays.
9. The impact bodies colliding with Moon and Earth have two main modes of velocity distribution: planetary, up to 72 km/s and galactic, about 200 km/s.
10. At impact of large comets of galactic velocity about 200 km/s on the near lunar side the mares, the huge areas refined from all jaggies with bearing of material from surface for limits of horizon of explosion are forming. Rocky refractory part of comets cans moves through lunar body. For that it is necessary to have diameter of rocky part of comet not less 20 km. The surge stream melt occurs in place of end-to-end exit on thousand kilometres and even it may fall to the Earth. .
11. Salpeter mass function can be continued aside small masses up down to comets and micro comets observed in atmosphere of the Earth in the manner of meteoroids.
12. There is the fundamental function of mass for planetary systems dM/dt = M, similar Salpeter function saving attitude of masses of planets during a long time of evolution of planetary system.
13. The difference of altitude of lunar fare side and near side is defined by double greater accretion to far side of Moon because of gravitational influences of the Earth.
14. Accretion time constant in Solar system is about two trillion years. Then for this time of planet and Sun enlarge its mass in 2.7 times.
15. Diatremes, kimberlite tubes are observed on the terrestrial crust. There are objects of impact metamorphism of terrestrial rocks at influence of refractory core of celestial bodies fallen to the Earth at the speed about 200 km/s. Arising of diamonds is a result of influence impact hyper pressure on terrestrial graphite and coal.
16. The terrestrial hydrosphere is a result of comet accretion containing great mass of water.
17. Mars, other cool planets and their satellites must have powerful hydrosphere in the manner of oceans covered by water ice.
The author expresses its gratitude to
- compilers of SAI - Dubna Catalog "Morphology Catalog of Moon Craters" under general edition of V.V. Shevtschenko, MSI, 1987, without which present work will be impossible,
- creators of Apollo Mission Photo Gallery for given possibility of study of Moon in close distance,
- authors of miraculous computer program "Virtual Moon Atlas" Christian Legrend and Patric Shevalley , using of which has greatly accelerated study of Moon surface,
- Russian planetologist Eugene Dmitriev, the veteran of Design Bureau "Salute" of Khrunichev Cosmic Centre, Moscow), inspirited the author on study of impact events,
- Timur Kryachko (Moscow) for valuable consultations on astronomical equipment and help in its aquisition,
- participant of Bourabai Research forum Boris Andreyev, taken part in active discussing on the problem of present paper.
December 30, 2008