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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, December 1, 2005
THE INVISIBLE UNIVERSE
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

The reasons of distortion of notions about the Universe, developed in a modern science are considered, some myths of astrophysics are revealed. The explanation of radio spectra of galaxies and appearing disobedience of quasars to Kepler's Radiation Law are given. Usability of Rayleigh Law of light dissipation for aether and the combination nature of a radio-frequency emission of hot space around of galaxies, quasars and the rests of supernovae are shown.

“... The killing majority of things, even in cleanly material nature, remain hidden for our pity five or six feelings, and that, hence, the limitation absolutely eliminating these latent participating factors, is limitation really, of a horrifying volume. Such limitation of a natural-science pattern of the world only in directly accessible to observation can be termed human, that is adapted to a human nature as it in advance builds all on our feelings. But it contradicts as well to a human nature as it is not considered with ability of human spirit and with aspiration proper in him to recreate in the imagination corresponding patterns of the hidden from us participating factors.”

Philipp von Lenard [1]

Really, organs of vision of the man to which he trusts more everything embrace only insignificant part of all spectrum of emission in the Universe. Subconsciously absolutizing the sight reinforced by Galilean telescopes and microscopes of Hooke [2], the man imagined that the optical part of emission allows embracing hole Universe in undistorted, clear light. The presentation about the Universe which have generated on the basis of optical subjectivity actually are very distorted and far from true. Let’s show them in a view of human spirit to advance further in our understanding and seeing of the infinite Universe.

Myths of modern astrophysics

The myth of absence of invisible has appeared as though by itself, without someone's malicious intention and lie. Like saying, as we do not see it, it is not present. Really, observing celestial bodies, we use only an insignificant share of all natural spectrum of emission - 0.39 … 0.78·10-6 m. Other part of the spectrum is hidden from our animal sight. This narrow strip of a spectrum matches to a maximum of the sunlight penetrating through an atmosphere and attaining a surface of the Earth. It is natural. During billions years the sight of animals was accommodated for this radiation band which was expedient to use to a survival in terrestrial requirements where subjects were shone by the reflected sunlight inside of a solar "optical" gamut.

However, by the law, discovered by W. Wien in 1893, the maximum of a spectrum of a self-emission of any body linearly depends on a body temperature and is presented by Wien’s formula [3]

fmax = bT, b - is Wien's constant

(1)

From formula (1) directly follows, that dark unlighted colder than Sun bodies are not visible by using optical means of observation.

On the other hand, in 1879 J. Stefan has experimentally found, and in 1884 L. Boltzmann has theoretically proved, that emission of warm bodies obeys the law [3]

E = σT4 [W/m2], σ - is Stefan - Boltzmann constant,

(2)

That is for spherical stars radiated power is [4]

L = 4πR2σT4 [W], R - stellar radius.

(3)

As for a great bulk of stars (stars of the Main Sequence) the radius and luminosity (3) are bound by relation [4]

L ≈ L0(R/R0) 5,2 [W]

(4)

where L0, R0 – are fixed parameters (usually the luminosity and the radius of Sun) luminosity of MS star is function of temperature of its surface

L ≈ C0T 6,5 [W], C0 = const

(5)

From here, the luminosity of stars differing on temperature (frequency of emission) in 2 times differs in 90 times.

Thus, even for the Hubble space telescope the observation of far celestial bodies having low temperature is problematic. For land telescopes it is in general an insoluble problem as the Earth's atmosphere is the filter eliminating all emission outside of optical and microwave bands (see fig. 1.)

Fig. 1. "Red" and “brown” that is cold stars, except red giants and supergiants simply are not observable. The capability of detection of small celestial bodies, like planets and comets remote from the Sun on distances more than an orbit of Pluto by means of land optical telescopes also is completely expelled.

However, as it was ideally received by I. Kant [6, 7], such bodies should make the most part of celestial bodies in the Universe.

Really, if we will accept Kant’s concept and we will understand that the basic way of formation of celestial bodies is an aggregation from more small-sized bodies to bigger bodies due to electromagnetic forces and Van der Waals forces at a stage of formation of cosmic dust and tiny cometary bodies, and due to gravitation - at a stage of formation larger celestial bodies – protoplanets and stars, the reason of natural distribution of celestial bodies on masses F (M) becomes clear. This distribution was discovered by Edwin Salpeter in 1955 [8]

F(M) = k / M2, k = const.

(6)

Being observant for optical band it can be prolonged safely as in smaller, and the larger side.

Distribution (6) For the optical band, found by different authors, is shown on fig. 2 [9]. Its physical meaning consists in its automodelling, i.e. the process of gravitational acquisition of substance for different scales has the same description. In other words Salpeter distribution shows that the gravitational accretion is the basic process in celestial bodies forming.

Fig. 2. Salpeter distribution of the stellar masses found by different authors (from [9]).

Besides recently many cosmic telescopes embracing wider spectrum of emission both in infra-red, and in a ultra-violet part were bring into an orbit. Observations of these telescopes show, that within area of several parsec from the Earth there are many infra-red protostars - brown or infra-red dwarfs prolonging Salpeter distributio in an infra-red [10].

Including, that neighbourhoods of the Earth is not a special place in the Universe, it is necessary to recognize, that the density function of stars should be indifferent to distance from the Earth. Really, when researchers observe the nearest space of the Earth in radius of the order 5 - 7 parsec where all optical stars are detected, such indifferent uniformity is observed. Further, where brighter stars are detected only, we see a diversion from this dispersion (see fig. 3 of [11]), which shows only restriction of observability by using optic telescopes. Naturally, deficit of stars is formed of the least bright (see fig. 4. from [12])

Adoption of Kant’s concept solves paradoxes of modern astrophysics at once. It excludes the misfit of stability of the stellar systems observable in optical band to the Virial Law (the misfit of a reality to modern sights at composition of the stellar systems as consisting only from optically observed components). It throws out mystification of special “dark matter” in structure of the stellar systems. Really, this dark matter is microcomets, cometary bodies and protoplanets – protostars of small size. Having a real mass density 0.1 - 1.0 kg/dm3, massif of these bodies, not interfering with passage of light through it, focuses enormous masses of unobservable substance in this space.

Fig. 3. Observable distribution of quantity of stars around the Earth in radius of 10 parsecs, its conformity to a uniform distribution up to distance 5 - 7 parsec and a decay of density on greater distances (from [11]).

Fig. 4. The observable distribution of stars on absulute luminosity (magnitude) in 10 parsec around the Earth. There is obvious deficit of difficultly observable dwarfs (from [12]).

Transparence of the outer space filled by condensed material in t of time above, than filled by gas

t = D/d,

(7)

where D – is an average diameter of a slice of condensed material (a mote, a micro-comet); d – is an average diameter of a molecule of gas.

Quantity of this dark and cold substance in galaxies is easy to gain from a requirement of virial theorem found by Rudolf Clausius in 1870 [13 - 15]

2Ekin + Epot = 0

(8)

where Ekin – is a kinetic energy of stellar system, Epot – is a potential energy of this system.

The analysis of the stellar systems (galaxies and globular clusters) gives a share of dark substance 90 … 97 % that is fitted to Salpeter distribution at its continuation into infrared side.

The myth of giant protostars has appeared by force of relativists, apologists of illogical GTR hypothesis and its subsidiary models, such as Einstein – Friedman model of the dilated Universe, used inconsistent hypothesis of J. Jeans, 1903, about gravitational collapse of clouds protomatter into enormous protostellar objects.

Jeans’ hypothesis is inconsistent owing to its seat on the requirements which really do not exist in the Universe.

The first necessary requirement of its realizing is a presence of some gas pressure in medium. It is not any gas pressure in the Space. Even the "dense" clouds of cosmic dust and gas practically have no any pressure.

The second physical nonsense resulting from Jeans’ model is an absence (not keeping) an angular momentum. The matter is that according to the same virial theorem, the object can be sustainable if its kinetic energy Ekin does not exceed half of potential energy Epot of system (8).

This requirement cannot be executed for a unified body at its collapse from a gas medium and leads to split of an initial cloud on clusters of more and more small-sized pieces in process of seal of separate clusters.

Really, large hydrogen – helium clouds are condensed not into giant protostars, but into the stellar globular clusters, being natural sustainable formations.

From globular clusters, contrary to prejudices of modern astrophysics, the stellar systems begin, that is globular clusters are first stellar formations from a gas medium. Globular clusters are formed persistently, that is visible from their statistical distribution in the Universe. Being incremented in size, globular clusters become elliptic galaxies, and then, after an improverishment of a gas medium and a classification of substance will be evolved to spiral galaxies.

The greatest protostars are red supergiants. It are ephemeral short-lived objects, evolution of which can be seen even on a scale of several tens years [16]. Being formed due to an accretion of interstellar gas in places of its dense accumulation, red giants shine due to a gravitational energy of dropping masses of gas.

Quasars, contrary to myths of modern astrophysics, are not protostars, "cosmogonic" objects, but last stage of the stellar evolution as it goes aside escalation of mass. In fact, stones do not drop into sky…

Myth of eruptive origin of comets and other celestial bodies. This myth has originated due diligence of the great mathematician of Lagrange. It is developed phenomenologically in works of known astronomer Vsekhsvjatski and it is in use till now though it contradicts not only the harmonous Kant’s concept about an interstellar origin of comets, but also against law of conservation of mass, energy and momentum, against law of thermodynamics.

Absurdity of this myth is visible from the following. For leaving any body the field of gravitation of a planet or a star, it is necessary to give for it velocity not below “escape” velocity.

The escape velocity for a typical planet is 5 - 50 km/s, that in 10 - 100 times greater velocity of a gun bullet and, accordingly, in 100 - 10000 times greater on energy capacity. Without special means of delivery (multiple-stage missile) it is necessary to give this velocity to a body practically instantaneous. Where is such physical process in the Nature? Till now it is unknown. It is not offered in any of eruptive hypotheses. Any of volcanoes does not provide and basically cannot provide such velocity of eruption. For origination of such velocities the temperature inside of a volcano should make hundred thousand grades, and strength of its muzzle restraining this temperature and monstrous pressure should exceed strength of a high-melting nozzle modern missiles.

Is it necessary to speak about a reality bodies eruption from a surface of stars, escape velocity for which makes hundreds km/s?

Is it really to speak about take-off from a surface of a major planet, advancing of the most gentle snow-like comets and even iron meteorites with such velocity through dense atmosphere of planet without stall and fracture?

Only single corpuscles of yields of a nuclear decay and gaseous masses, carrying by shock wave of a nuclear explosion can reach such velocity. However it is already other story concerning explosions of novae and supernovae, and also the "solar wind", being a yield of deuterium-tritium explosions on the Sun and stars [17].

Myths about QSO, quasi-stellar objects are born constantly from the moment of discovering the first quasar in 1960. The birth of these myths is related to ignoring of laws of classical physics and the physical facts and worship of relativistic mythology by astrophysicists.

Where roots of these myths?

“The Universe is unified, infinite, motionless...
It cannot decrease or increase, as it is infinite...

Giordano Bruno

Myth about finiteness of life of the Universe. The first deepest root of this mythology is the view on the Universe as on final in a time and space object. This myth has been born in the dense Middle Ages by European theologians. Living settled in restricted oikumene to the medieval European there was organically and clearly the representation about the Universe as a “general village” or “largest city”, which has been built under the decree from above. Age of medieval universe was nearby 5 and half thousand years.

Only in 17-th century after making paleontology by Robert Hooke and the subsequent researches of geologists, biologists and historians it became clear to Europeans that it is impossible to lay age of the Universe in this Procrustean bed. With each decade of evolution of natural sciences the lower estimation of age of the Universe was incremented, yet it has reached several billions years to the beginning of 20-th century. Owing to blossoming of relativistic mythology in 20-th century the imagined age of the Universe was shut down on a mark 13... 15 billion years.

Really, even globular clusters, these micro galaxies should have age more than the relativistic universe. Even greater times are necessary for formation of separate galaxies, even greater for such gravitational objects as Great Attractor. Today it is confirmed authentically.

The myth of the cosmogonic nature of quasars has originated on the basis of relativistic notion about finiteness of the Universe, on the basis of hypothesis about Doppler nature of redshift of quasars and subordination of this redshift to Hubble law of distances.

Actually, as it is shown by researches of alive classic of astrophysics Halton Arp [18 - 31], quasars have “intrinsic" redshift which in any way has been not related to distance up to QSO.

In opinion of the author, intrinsic redshift of quasars has the gravitational nature and it is determined by a special compact phase state of substance of QSO [32].

As it will be shown below, an appearing remoteness of quasars, that is a visible weak dependence of their luminosity from distance can be explained without engaging “cosmogonic" distances.

The Mythology around interstellar dispersion appears on ground of dogmatic faith in relativistic, empty and non-physical space-time. Discovered phenomena of interstellar dispersion of light, revealing on great distances is prefixed to mythical cosmic plasma. Existence of interstellar evenly diffused in cosmos high-temperature plasma disagrees the laws of thermodynamics. The True nature of interstellar dispersion as dispersion of physical wave - light in physical ambience - aether will be considered below.

The myth about synchrotron nature of radio-frequency emission of galaxies, the rests of supernovae and quasars has originated on the basis of the mistaken solution, that the radio-spectrum of these sources is not thermal as its declination in a microwave band mismatches a declination of heat sources, and relativistic interpretation of this phenomenon.

Trying to explain inexplicable within the limits of ether denial physics the relativists have put forward a hypothesis about synchrotron (braking) character of a radio-frequency emission of galaxies, see, for example, [33].

However this hypothesis does not stand criticism and has adherents only owing to that till now because there is no any reasonable alternative solution of this problem.

Really for existence of a synchrotron emission it is not satisfied at least three requirements:

As it will be shown below, the radio-frequency emission of galaxies has the thermal nature. The most part of a self-emission of quasars and X-ray stars has thermal nature.

Let's consider now the Universe in the real wide spectrum of its emission surrounding the thin optical slot.

The optical slot in the Planck spectrum of celestial bodies

The self-emission of celestial bodies practically differs from black body emission a little, that is submits to Planck’s quantum law of black body emission, 1900 [34] (see fig. 2).

(9)

The maximum of black body spectrum determines by Wien frequency (1). The high-frequency side f > 5fmax submits to Wien distribution, 1896 [3]

(10)

And a low-frequency side f < ~0.01fmax fit to Rayleigh distribution, 1900 [3]

(11)

If the body temperature considerably differs from solar 5763ºK the spectrum of emission looks as Rayleigh distribution for bodies much more hot than Sun and Wien distribution for colder bodies.

Other particularity consists in declining of part of optical spectrum both at redshift and blue shift of a spectrum, and the observable body seems radiating smaller quantity of energy, than it is actually (see fig. 5).

Thus, for the sources having temperature in million of grades (X-ray stars and quasars), a share of energy falling in optical band Evis drops in 1000 times with increasing of temperature Tsour in 10 times, that is from (9) and (1) we will gain

Evis /Esour = (Tsour/T)3 = (f0/f )3

(12)

On the other hand, the bodies having temperature below 700ºK are absolutely invisible.

From stated directly follows that attributing to the same X-ray radiant of different physics in X-ray and in optical light wrongfully. Optical luminosity is an edge of thermal spectrum.

Fig. 5. A share of energy of heat source E/Esour, falling to optical band (octave) depending on a relationship of temperature of Sun T and of radiant Tsour.

Illusory diversion of optical function of ultra-violet sources from Keplerian law

In 1604 Johannes Kepler has discovered the optical law. This law determines that radiant intensity Eobs (luminosity of a light source) drops in inverse proportion to square of distance from radiant Robs. This law is absolutely clear and matches to the Law of conservation of energy as the square of front of wave of radiation 4πR2 grows directly proportional to square of distance.

Eobs /Esour = (Rsour/Robs)2

(13)

However it is not so simple, when we deal with a real wide spectrum of emission of a celestial body and a narrow spectrum of the optical band embracing only one octave of frequencies.

Hubble redshift is function of distance (please, don’t mess with intrinsic or inherent redshift of galaxies and quasars!)

ZHublle +1 = expRH/c) = f0/f

(14)

where ΔR – is the considered section of a trajectory overcome by light, f0 – is frequency of radiation in the beginning of the trajectory, f – is frequency of the quantum in the end of an observed trajectory, H – is Hubble constant, c – is the speed of light.

From (14) with all conspicuity follows that for remote X-ray source the spectrum of its radiation moves in the red side that is comes nearer to optical band. Thereof the share of energy of this spectrum, falling in optical band grows according to (12) and (14)

Evis /Esour = exp(3ΔRH/c)

(15)

Thus, the resultant share of optical radiation of an X-ray radiant is superposition of Keplerian quadric diffusing of energy (13), “spectral convergence” (12) and “tiredness of light” (14). In the total it gives the complex pattern of change of luminance of a radiant with distance, making far X-ray sources more brightly for an observer. The same occurs for other reason. The spectrum of sources having intrinsic redshift is displaced for the observer on the same redshift. According to it ultra-violet and X-ray sources become more brightly for observer, in the limit according to (12), and for close ultra-violet sources according to their share in Planck spectrum (9) shown on figure 3.

Combined effect of these factors creates sensation of independence of radiation from distance as if the ultra-violet object is apart much greater than it is actually, creating illusion of their "cosmogonic" remoteness.

For evident representation in figure 6 the energy relations for light propagating on "cosmogonic" distances and energy functions of its optical observation are shown.

Apparently from figure 6, optical luminance of quasars is practically constant on large distances while usual optical stars are sweepingly lost in a haze of Space. For this reason only X-ray active nuclei and quasars are visible in distant galaxies.

To fathom the phenomena occurring in the microwave band, it is necessary to consider properties of the aether, which is medium and carrying agent of electromagnetic waves.

Fig. 6. The energy relations for light on "cosmogonic" distances.

(1 – is quadric decrease of luminosity according to Kepler, 1604; 2 - an exponential decrease of energy of a quantum, “tired light” according to Zwicky, 1929; 3 – is final decrease by Kepler in account of “tired light”; 4 – is increment of an optical share for X-ray stars due to redshift of a maximum of Planck spectrum, 1900 relatively optical band; 5 – is the same for quasars; 6 – is resultant optical luminosity of X-ray stars in view of “tired light” and Keplerian geometrical diffusing; 7 – is resultant optical luminosity of quasars).

Ether, the carrier medium of electromagnetic waves

Aether, as well as other physical media, has density, viscosity, absorption, dielectric permittivity (8.854·10-12 F/m), magnetic permeability (1.257·10-6 H/m), a wave resistance (377 Ohm).

Superficially looking at the question of aethereal density, being guided by habitual prejudices, it is not necessary to sneer in occasion aether density, 2.818 [kg/m3], found by the author [35].

Actually it is not gravitational density, as at substance, but the inertia density as at physical fields, including light. It is exact in that sense as Nikolay Umov understood this density and its connection with energy E and speed of light c, 1870 [36 - 40]:

dE / dρ = c2 [m2/s2],

long before gamble of 20-th century.

As well as the usual substance, aether has property of temperature, which is equal in conditions 2.72ºK (it is discovered by Professor Erich Regener in 1933 [41], but not by Penzias and Wilson in 1964).

Accordingly, aether has a Planck spectrum of emission of a black body.

Absorption of energy of light quanta by aether is determined by process of a relaxation, excitation of forced oscillations of its units by an electromagnetic wave transiting through it.

Having inertia, each amer (the unit of aether) is the harmonic high-frequency oscillator of frequency ω determined by individual temperature of amer Ta. As it was discovered by Max Planck the thermodynamically balanced statistical ensemble of such emitters gives distribution (9).

However each amer separately is a resonator with very large Q-factor which response to forcing action can be presented as [3]

(16)

where g0 – is a characteristic speed-up, ωTa – is a natural frequency of amer; ω – is forcing frequency; δ – is a damping factor.

It is easy to see that for high frequencies (visible light has ω/ωTa ~= 2000) the formula (16) transforms in

(17)

On the other hand the energy of these forced oscillations is energy which is taken away from light. That is energy of a light quantum in connection with homogeneity of aether decreases in time under the exponential law

(18)

Temporal damping factor manifested on intergalactic distances, is known

δ = H = 2.36 ·10-18 [1/s]; γ = H/c = 7.888 ·10-27 [1/m]

where H – is Hubble constant [1/s]; γ - is spatial damping factor [1/m]; c – is speed of light [m/s]

On the other hand the damping factor of wave oscillations in gaseous medium and in free phase aether can be expressed as [3]

(19)

where ν - is kinematic viscosity of medium [m2/s]; c – is a wave velocity [m/s]; ω – is wave cyclical frequency [1/s].

From (17), (18) and (19) it is visible that viscosity of aether for high frequencies is function of frequency of electromagnetic wave

(20)

Property (20) provides an apparent illusory absence of vacuum dispersion in the infra-red, optical and ultra-violet bands. Slope of viscosity with frequency is completely compensated by the same increment of cycles of absorption, dissipation of energy of a quantum, and the variance of optical waves in aether is not observable. It makes ethereal medium "invisible" in narrow optical band, generating relativistic mythology.

For exposure of this mythology let’s consider a process of interacting of electromagnetic waves and aether in more detail.

Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic waves in aether

In 1871 Lord Rayleigh has discovered the law of scattering of light on small corpuscles which can be spread to a case of diffusing of electromagnetic waves in aether [42].

Really, looking at the formula of Rayleigh for section of particles of diffusing medium and, consequently, for intensity of dissipation

where r – is a size of scattering particles (corpuscles of medium); (ε-ε0) – is dielectric susceptibility of medium; λ – is wave length of light,

It is possible to see that here there are two multiplicative factors:

- change of optical density of the medium expressed through dielectric susceptibility of medium;
- thermodynamic dissipation.

The aether, either as any physical medium, responds on external influence by changing its own parameters. However in connection with unique values of parameters of aether this response exceedingly small. Said pertains to dielectric permittivity of aether too, which in modern physicist was taken as the constant. Indeed, ε of aether is changed under the action of electric field, so the first factor can be determined as function of the electric intensity, created by an electromagnetic wave that is dielectric susceptibility of aether (according to well-kown electrooptic effect, J. Kerr, 1875) is

(21)

where P – is a polarization of medium (dipole moment of volume unit, independent from frequency); E(ω) - an electric intensity.

In turn an electric intensity created by a quantum in aether is

(22)

where a = const. [V/J] - is factor of recalculation of mechanical power in electric intensity.

Physically (22) means, that the bound aether, which domains size determines dielectric permittivity of aether has the inertia property with a characteristic frequency much below than natural frequency ωTa of amer of the free phase aether and expression (21) is equivalent to high-frequency approximation of (17).

The second factor has more complex character determined by thermodynamic diffusing of energy by light quantum.

Here it is possible to gate out two bands of frequencies:

- band of radio waves that is frequencies below fmax of aether, λ > 1 mm, see (1);
- quantum-optical band that is frequencies above fmax of aether, λ <1 mm.

In the radio-wave band undular properties of an electromagnetic wave prevail. The density of energy of a single quantum in the radio-wave band below of density of energy of quanta of medium. In thermodynamic systems transition of energy from objects with smaller density of energy to objects with greater density of energy is impossible.

In a quantum-optical band, when frequency of a wave, so its effective temperature is above matching parameter of medium, the process of a dissipation analogous to Stefan -Boltzmann Law occurs

(23)

where S – is an effective surface of a quantum of an electromagnetic wave; Tw – is the temperature of a wave matching to frequency ωw; Te – is the temperature of aether matching to frequency ωe; σ – is Stefan – Boltzmann constant.

The formula (23) unlike Stefan – Boltzmann law takes to account that process of emission goes not in empty space, but in aether.

Thus, in connection with decrease of the effective square of a quantum with a square of frequency, the level of a dissipation of energy is proportional to the second order of a difference of frequencies of a wave and aether. Relations of these two factors to frequency of a wave are shown in figure 7.

Fig. 7. Relations between components of Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic waves on aether and their frequency.

(1 – is Planck spectrum of emission / absorption of aether; 2 – is change of dielectric susceptibility of aether; 3 – is viscosity of aether; 4 - is final relation (wave absorption in aether); 5 – is optical band of frequencies)

Factor of absorption in aether that is to say practically factor of dielectric loss will be defined by product of viscosity and dielectric susceptibility, either as for any other dielectric medium

δ(f) = α χ ν ; α = const.

Figure 7 demonstrates clear that below temperature (frequency) of aether Ta , fa the electromagnetic waves propagation in aether is an analogue of usual sound waves, for which aether has the constant viscosity (the factor of internal friction). Above frequency fa electromagnetic wave is an analogue of hypersonic wave and viscosity of aether decreases with frequency. Also, as phonons with energy hf for hypersonic waves, photons, light quanta with energy hf signify for electromagnetic waves in aether with f > fa .

By Kirchhoff’s law, apparently from figure 7, Planck black body emission and absorption of aether should lead to absorption of electromagnetic waves close to 3·1011 Hz (λ = 1 mm) on "cosmogonic" distances. An optical distance of ether D = c/H = 13.4 ·109 years. That is all optically observable Space is the thin surface stratum of thickness of the real Universe.

The pit in observable spectrums of celestial bodies in the field of frequencies 3 ·1011 Hz (including a "not thermal" declination of radio spectrum) partially explains it. However, there is one more phenomenon, striking observers in its scales. This is powerful radio-frequency emission of some galaxies, quasars and spaces in places of the supernova explosions. Let’s consider this phenomenon in detail.

Heterodyne emission of aether in the radio wave band

As it has been shown, amers of free phase aether, being unbound harmonic high-frequency oscillators (16), have extremely large Q-factor.

For a long time relaxation, slowly changing the individual frequency, they are distributed in thermodynamically balanced ensemble represented by Planck distribution (9).

However in aether there are two more others kinds of amers - the bound phase aether and corpuscular aether, which temperature may not be to equal temperature of free aether, which is heated up by celestial bodies. Heat capacity of the bound and corpuscular aethers is so great that their Planck black-body distribution is especially constant.

In connection with comparability of sizes of amers of bound phase and free aethers, occasionally between them there is an interacting generating emission of a low combination (heterodyne) frequency:

fcomb = |fbound - ffree|

(23)

Frequency (24) is a frequency of a radio-emission of aether in disequilibrium. Such state originates at powerful heating aether when the temperature of free aether Tfree essentially differs from stable temperature Tbound of the basis, the bound and corpuscular aether.

Power of such radio-emission can be determined by means of Stefan – Boltzmann formula modified by the author

Thus, aether, heated by quasars and supernovae, should emit in a microwave band. And really it is observable in the form of "radio-warm" places in the Universe. The good illustration is given with pictures of Cygnus A shown in figure 8 [43, 44].

Fig. 8. Pictures of radio galaxy Cygnus A in different bands of a radio spectrum [43, 44].

Here is temperature fall of aether that is magnification of wavelength of a radio-frequency emission with remoteness from the galaxy is clearly visible. Thus “radio objects” in these pictures are just empty but heated aether.

Interstellar dispersion of light within aether

This phenomenon was discovered more than 30 years ago, when the difference between moments of arrivals of light and radio pulses of pulsars is found. Clear that having broad spectrum of emission - from X-rays to radio the initial pulse of emission of pulsar suffers "stratification", temporary dispersion in connection with difference of velocities of high and low frequency waves.

Relativists could not acknowledge the dispersion as attribute of carrier environment. This meant ruin of theory of relativity. In this connection there was written myth about existence of hot plasma evenly diffused in the Space.

The myth about cosmic plasma is unacceptable by following reasons:

- There is thermodynamically impossible the long existence of hot over resolved plasma in cool cosmos. Such plasma must quickly cool off before 3°K to account of heat emission into cool Space.

- If plasma is formed to account of outflow from celestial bodies that it must be patched and cause the modulation of value of time dispersion, what in fact itself does not exist. Exist only twinkling of light of pulsars and sporadic inflexion of amplitude of signal that explicable by presence of interstellar dust.

Really aether has own dispersion because of dependency of its dielectric susceptibility from frequency of wave of light according to (21).

The unprejudiced and attentive analysis of data on interstellar dispersion shows that its behavior is described by regularities found by author, and observed detours from linear dependency of dispersion measure (DM) of some pulsars are defined by parameters of material cloud residing in process of dissipation after supernova explosion.

How the author’s study shows, the dispersing influence of diffused material of supernova (cool electrons) is satisfactorily described by formula

Kform = exp(-t/Tscat) (1exp(-t/Tform)

where Tscat – is a time constant of dissipation of material cloud; Tform – is a time constant of cloud forming.

The Author are found such average values: Tscat = 1.2 megayears, Tform = 5900 years. Experimental data are fitted in this model with factor of correlation 0.9985. Figure 9 and table 1 show values of frequency-time dispersion of pulsars signals.

 

Table 1. The Parameters of interstellar dispersion of pulsars signals.

PSR

t

R

DM

TSN

Kform

DMaether

Name

[ms]

[ps]

[ps/cm3]

[Myear]

[ps/cm3]

[ps/cm3]

0525+21

3745

2000

51

14,000

0,000

51,00

0531+21

33

2000

57

0,001

0,144

48,22

0611+22

335

1500

97

0,090

0,929

40,35

0809+74

1292

190

60

0,125

0,902

4,96

0833+45

98

500

69

0,011

0,837

17,92

0943+10

1098

300

15

5,000

0,016

14,00

0950+08

253

98

3

18,000

0,000

3,00

1133+16

1188

210

5

5,000

0,016

4,00

1154-62

401

8000

267

0,500

0,663

226,56

1845-19

4308

670

20

4,500

0,025

18,49

1913+16

59

5600

167

2,000

0,193

155,22

1919+21

1337

420

12

16,000

0,000

12,00

1937-215

1,56

2500

100

1,000

0,439

73,19

2021+51

529

760

23

3,000

0,085

17,82

Fig. 9. Distribution of dispersion measure (DM) of pulsars signals
(blue circles are observed dispersion measure of pulsars signals,
red crosses are clear dispersion measure of aether).

Conclusions

Supporting on classical works of Johannes Kepler, Robert Hooke, Immanuel Kant, Rudolf Clausius, Ludwig Boltzmann, John Rayleigh, Nikolay Umov, Philipp Lenard, Willy Wien, Max Planck, Erich Regener, Edwin Hubble, Edwin Salpeter, Halton Arp and other modern astrophysicists, the author has tried to present for readers the true face of the Universe sharply differing from relativistically curtailed into Ptolemean egg the world of 20-th century.

In the present work it is shown that

  • The Universe develops according to the Kant’s concept from microscopic bodies to small, and then to greater celestial bodies as a result of a gravitational accretion, that is the fall of bodies each to other. It confirms by Salpeter distribution and observations in infra-red band.
  • The narrow optical slot, through which the man sees the Universe, is only its insignificant part. Grounding the outlook only on optical observation, we dreadfully distort a real face of the Universe.
  • Illusory disobedience of optical emission of quasars to Kepler's law is determined by shift of the optical slot of observer aside a maximum of a spectrum of emission on greater distances.
  • Aether has all attributes of physical medium - the carrying agent of waves.
  • Rayleigh scattering is fair and for diffusion of electromagnetic waves on aether.
  • Radio patterns of galaxies observed by astronomers, is only empty but heated aether. The radio-frequency emission of space around of galaxies, quasars and places of supernova explosions is combination (heterodyne) emission of variously heated phases of ether.

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to Professor Friedwardt Winterberg (The University of Nevada, Reno, USA), to Professor Alexey Alekseevich Potapov (The Institute of dynamics of systems and control theory of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia), to Dr. Halton Arp (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Germany), and to Nikolay Noskov (The National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Kazakhstan) for discussion, moral and scientific support of the present study.

Karim Khaidarov,
Almaty, December, 1, 2005

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Знаете ли Вы, что "тёмная материя" - такая же фикция, как черная кошка в темной комнате. Это не физическая реальность, но фокус, подмена.
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