Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, December 1, 2005



, , . . , .

... , , , , , , , , . , , . ,

, [1]

, , , . , [2], , , . . , .

, - . : , . , , 0.39...0.78106 m. . , . . , , .

, , 1893 , [3]

fmax = bT, b

(1)

(1) , , .

, 1879 . , 1884 . , [3]

E = σT4 [W/m2], σ - - ,

(2)

[4]

L = 4πR2σT4 [W], R - .

(3)

( ) (3) [4]

L ≈ L0(R/R0) 5,2 [W]

(4)

L0, R0 ( ),

L ≈ C0T 6,5 [W], C0 = const

(5)

, ( ) 2 90 .

, . , , . , , (. .1.)

.1. [5]. .

, , . , , , .

, . , 1755 [6, 7], .

, , , -- , - , F(M), 1955 [8], ,

F(M) = k / M2, k = const.

(6)

(6) , , .2 [9]. , . , , , .

. 2. , [9].

, , , . , , -, , [10].

, , , . , 5 - 7 , , . , , (. . 3 [11]), . , (. . 4. [12])

. 3. 10 , 5 7 [11].

. 4. 10 [12], .

. : ( ), . , . 0.1 1.0 kg/dm3, , , .

, t ,

t = D/d,

(7)

D (, ); d .

() 1870 [13 - 15]

2Ekin + Epot = 0

(8)

Ekin - , Epot - .

( ) 90 97%, .

, , , . , 1903, .

, .

. . .

, ( ) . , , , Ekin Epot (8)

.

, - , , .

, , , . , . , , , .

- , - , [16]. , .

, , , , , . ,

. , , , , , , .

. , - , , , .

5 50 km/s, 10 100 , , 100 10000 . ( ) . ? . . . , , .

, km/s?

, ?

, . , , , - [17].

QSO 1960 . , .

?

, , ...
,
...

. , , . . , , . 5 .

17- , , . , 20- . 20- 13 15 .

, , . , , . .

, .

, [18 - 31], , .

, [32].

, , .

, -. , , . , . , - - .

, , , , .

() , ., , [33].

, .

:

, . .

, .

, , 1900 [34] (. . 2).

(9)

(1). f > ~5fmax , 1896 [3]

(10)

f < ~0.01fmax , 1900 [3]

(11)

5763 ºK, - .

, , , , (. . 5).

, , ( ), Evis 1000 Tsour 10 , (9) (1)

Evis /Esour = (Tsour/T)3 = (f0/f )3

(12)

, , 700 ºK .

, . .

. 5. E/Esour, ()
T Tsour.


1604 , . , Eobs ( ) Robs. , 4πR2 .

Eobs /Esour = (Rsour/Robs)2

(13)

, , .

( !)

ZHublle +1 = expRH/c) = f0/f

(14)

ΔR , , f0 - , f - , H , c .

(14) , , . , (12) (14)

Evis /Esour = exp(3ΔRH/c)

(15)

, (13), (12) (14). , . . , , . , (12), (9), 5.

, , , .

6 , .

. 6. "" .

(1 - , 1604; 2 - , " " , 1929; 3 - " "; 4 - , 1900 ; 5 - ; 6 - " " ; 7 - ).

6, , , . .

, , , , , .

-

, , , , , (8.85410-12 F/m), (1.25710-6 H/m), (377 ).

, , , 2.818 [kg/m3], [35].

, , , , , , ρ E c , 1870 [36 - 40]:

dE / dρ = c2 [m2/s2].

20- .

, , 2.72 ºK ( . 1933 [41], 1964).

, .

, .

, ωTa, Ta . (9).

, [3]

(16)

g0 [m/s2], ωTa [1/s]; ω [1/s]; δ - [1/s].

, ( ω/ωTa ~= 2000) (16)

(17)

, , .

(18)

, ,

δ = H = 2.36 10-18 [1/s]; γ = H/c = 7.888 10-27 [1/m]

H [1/s] ; γ - [1/m]; c [m/s]

, , [3]

(19)

ν [m2/s]; c [m/s]; ω - [1/s].

(17), (18) (19) ,

(20)

(20) , . , , . , .

.

1871 , [42].

, , ,

r ( ); (ε-ε0) ; λ - ,

, :

- , ;
- .

, , , . . , . ε , , , χ(ω) ( , . , 1875)

(21)

P - ( , ); E(ω) .

,

(22)

a = const. [V/J] - .

(22) , , , ωTa (21) (17). , .

, .

:

. . .

- , , , , -

(23)

S ; Tw , ωw; Te , ωe; σ ο .

(23) , , .

, , . 7.

. 7.

(1 / ; 2 - ; 3 ; 4 ( ); 5 )

, ,

δ(f) = α χ ν ; α = const.

7 , () Ta, fa , ( ). fa .

, hf , f > fa hf.

, 7, 31011 Hz (λ = 1 mm) . D = c/H = 13.4109 . .

31011 Hz ( ) . , , . , . .

, , (16), .

, , , (9).

, , . , - .

, , :

fcomb = |fbound - ffree|

(24)

(24) . , Tfree Tbound .

, , , . , - . Cygnus A, 8 [43, 44].

. 8. Cygnus A [43, 44].

, . , .

30 , . , - "", .

- . . , .

:

- (21).

, , , .

, ( )

Kform = exp(-t/Tscat) (1 - exp(-t/Tform))

Tscat - ; Tform - .

: Tscat = 1.2 . , Tform = 5900 . 0.9985, 9 - , .

1. .

PSR

t

R

DM

TSN

Kform

DMaether

Name

[ms]

[ps]

[ps/cm3]

[Myear]

[ps/cm3]

[ps/cm3]

0525+21

3745

2000

51

14,000

0,000

51,00

0531+21

33

2000

57

0,001

0,144

48,22

0611+22

335

1500

97

0,090

0,929

40,35

0809+74

1292

190

60

0,125

0,902

4,96

0833+45

98

500

69

0,011

0,837

17,92

0943+10

1098

300

15

5,000

0,016

14,00

0950+08

253

98

3

18,000

0,000

3,00

1133+16

1188

210

5

5,000

0,016

4,00

1154-62

401

8000

267

0,500

0,663

226,56

1845-19

4308

670

20

4,500

0,025

18,49

1913+16

59

5600

167

2,000

0,193

155,22

1919+21

1337

420

12

16,000

0,000

12,00

1937-215

1,56

2500

100

1,000

0,439

73,19

2021+51

529

760

23

3,000

0,085

17,82

. 9.
( - ,
- ).

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 20- .

,

( , , ), ( , , ), - ( . , ), ( , , ) , .

,
, 1 2005

  1. . , , . , , 1922.
  2. . ( ), , 1665.
  3. .., .. . ., , 1968.
  4. .. . ., , 1983.
  5. .. . - http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1188575.
  6. . . , 1755
  7. . . . , 1761.
  8. . . - 1955
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  10. http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/
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  12. http://nstars.nau.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=nstars.luminosity
  13. Clausius, R.J.E. Phil. Mag. 1870, 40, 122
  14. Clausius, R.J.E. Compt. Rend. 1870, 70, 1314
  15. Clausius, R.J.E. Ann. Physik 1870, 141, 124
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  17. . . . - , 2004.
  18. Arp, H.C., 1987, "Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies" (Berkeley, Interstellar Media)
  19. Arp, H.C., 1996, A&A 316, 57
  20. Arp, H.C., 1997, A&A 319, 33
  21. Arp H.C. Discordant arguments in compact groups, Astroph. J., 1997, p 74-83.
  22. Arp, H.C., 1998, "Seeing Red"(Apeiron, Montreal)
  23. Arp H.C. Evolution of Quasars into Galaxies and its Implications for the Birth and Evolution of Matter, (Apeiron, Montreal, 1998).
  24. Arp, H.C., 1999, A&A 341, L5
  25. Arp, H.C., 2003, "A Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations" (Apeiron, Montreal)
  26. Arp, H.C., Bi, H.G., Chu, Y., Zhu, X., 1990 A&A 239, 33
  27. Arp, H.C., Burbidge, E.M., Chu, Y., Zhu, X., 2001 ApJ 553, L11
  28. Arp, H.C., Burbidge, E.M., Burbidge, G. The Double radio source 3C 343.1: A galaxy QSO pair with very different redshifts, 2004, A&A 414, L37
  29. Arp H.C. Anomalous Redshifts, 2005.
  30. Arp, H.C., Roscoe D., C. Fulton C. Periodicities of Quasar Redshifts in Large Area Surveys. Arxiv, 2005
  31. Arp H.C. Faint Quasars Give Conclusive Evidence for Non-Velocity Redshifts, 2005.
  32. .. . , 2005
  33. .., .. () . , 87, 1, 1965.
  34. . . Annalen der Physik, V.4, p.553, 1901.
  35. . . . - , 2003
  36. .. . , 1873.
  37. .. (1874). - .
  38. .. " " (1874).- .
  39. Umov N.A. Albeitung der Bewegungsgleichungen der Energie in continuirlichen Körpern ( ). "Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik", Bd. XIX, 1874, H. 5.
  40. Umov N.A. Ein Theorem ber die Wechselwirkungen in Endlichen Entfernungen. ( ). , "Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik", d. XIX, 1874, Bd. XIX, 1874, H. 2.
  41. Regener, E., Zeitschrift für Physik 80, 666-669, 1933.
  42. Rayleigh J.W. - Phil. Mag. 41, 107-120, 274-279, 1871
  43. http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/public/science/cyga.html
  44. Krichbaum T. et al., 1998, A&A 329, 873.

   

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