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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, 2003. Updated October 1, 2003


(The Luminiferous Ether)

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth
Genesis [1; 1]

Taking as a fact [1] the presence of the ether in the Universe, united quasi isotropic and elastic medium, being the main basic matter, the carrier of the whole energy, all processes, occurring in the Universe, and taking for the base of beliefs about it working model [2], presenting its in the manner of two component medium - corpuscular and phase, we will consider its main characteristics and the main mechanisms of forming the substance and the field from ether.

Now the earth was formless and empty,
darkness was over the surface of the deep,
and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.

Genesis [1; 2]

The Ether States

According to working model [2] the ether consists of identical dense packed incondensable massless elements - "amers", interactions between which are spreading with greatly possible for this medium velocity - velocity of light. In the main ether, which we call corpuscular, there are separate empty cells - vacancies, which are forming the phase ether.

Under the certain conditions a moving the particles of these two types forms the substance and the field. The Field is shift and rotation ether vibrations. The substance is a joint motion of ether corpuscles, having a mass property.

Motion of all substance particles occur in corpuscular ether, which is an absolute reference system for them. Herewith the wave phenomena are appearing, reference system for which is a field of vacancies - the phase ether.

Follow to G. V. Nikolaev, who designed corpuscular theory of electromagnetism [3] and who shown by its brilliant experiment on lead shot diffraction, that also, as for aerodynamics a Strouhal number and velocity of sound are only parameters of air medium, so and Planck constant and velocity of light are a parameters of the ether, we shall consider that there is no corpuscular-wave duality in the sense of logical fuzzy notion - "and wave, and particle". There is only motion of corpuscles, there is created by this motion and supported by it, shift and rotation waves of corpuscular ether, defined by presence and moving the field of vacancies - phase ether.

For clarity of belief about ether structure we bring diagram of its states (fig.1).

Fig.1. Ether states diagram.
(1 - corpuscular ether, 2 - phase ether, 3 - substance, 4 - level of high energy.
For comparison: blue mark is a temperature of the Space 2,73oK, green - 20oC, yellow - Sun temperature 6000oK.)

Similarly to phase diagram of substances ether has three main states:

There is the fourth state of the ether (4), which corresponds to level of non-elastic processes in the ether, destroying the structure of substance.

The phase (2) is separated from the rest by Planck's photon line:

E = hν

The point (2e) is the first critical point of the ether - point of EM-field vortex stalling into electron-positron pair. Above it elastic characteristics of corpuscular ether gradually get lost. The energy of point (a), smaller than energy of point (2e) in 1/861 times, corresponds to the hidden energy of vacancy (amer) moving at the speed of light.

We must note that unlike phase diagram of materials, all derived states of the ether - substance, phase ether, are only forms of corpuscular ether motion within itself.

God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night."
Genesis [1; 5]

Working Model Extension

For profound consideration of characteristics of the ether we must explicate the working model, given by us in [2]. For this purpose we will consider simplified models of corpuscular and phase ether, photon, electron and positron.

And God said, "Let there be an expanse between
the waters to separate water from water."
Genesis [1; 6]

Corpuscular Ether

Corpuscular ether, consisting of identical absolute elastic dense packed elements - "amers", has dodecahedral structure. If it has not empty cells, there is no motion in it, except rotations of elements. At presence within ether only a few vacancies, there is possible motion due 6 axis (12 directions) of dodecahedron, but when the concentration of vacancies are increasing, shift deforming of the corpuscular ether become possible. And ether becomes more anisotropic, enabling vacancies to move indepentently from axis of dodecahedron. Such impoverished by vacancies ether exists in particular conditions only, for instance, when movement of substances or shift and rotation waves are proceed with velocities, close to velocity of light, as it is seen from (1). How experiments of Olaf Roemer, Stephan Marinov, Paul Kolen have shown, ether group (corpuscular) velocity does not depend of moving the Earth or other celestial bodies. It is absolute and practically still.

For explanation of electric characteristics of corpuscular ether follow to Robert Fritzius [4], introduced in his sub quantum model two particles - "positrino" and "negatrino" - carriers of electrical charges, as well as Shipitzin and others. [5] introduced additional types of defects in ether structure - interstitial cell and "contracted" vacancy, we introduce similar elements.

We shall consider that under putting ultimate load to ether vacancy, it converts to one of two special states, concrete physics of which yet not clear. As Robert Fritzius's sub quantum notion is more close to our model, one of the these states we will name "positrino", and other - "negatrino".

So God made the expanse and separated the water under
the expanse from the water above it. And it was so.
Genesis [1; 7]

Phase Ether

The Phase ether presents by itself vacancies - "bubbles" in corpuscular ether. The Vacancies of phase ether move with different velocities, up to light.

How Michelson's, Miller's experiments have shown, usual velocity of vacancies is ranging to several kilometers per second.

The Vacancies of light velocity, being carriers essential gravity pulse we will name gravitons. That puls is equal

Ig = 861 c2 / h [kg-1 s-1],

here h is Planck constant,
        861 is full cycle of gravitons emission in a convoluted EM-wave (see below),
        c - light velocity in corpuscular ether.

Since value of gravity pulse quickly decreases with fall of velocity of vacancies, that vacancies, having small velocities, practically do not contribute the essential contribution to gravity phenomenon. However they form the field of phase ether that is to say provide the liberty of moving the corpuscular ether, as well as bring a fall of light corpuscular velocity trough increasing of their density. Knowing reduction of light velocity with increase of gravity field it is possible to calculate a density of vacancies, since this density is proportional the reduction of gravity potential.

In [2] there was calculated a fall of light velocity from gravity field, so, considering that way of light ray lengthens in proportions


here c is light speed,
      VII is the second space velocity in given point of the Space,
      r is radius of vacancy (or amer's),
      4R is average double distance between vacancies,

it is possible to define the three-dimentional concentration of gravitons depending on gravity potential:


The Three-dimentional concentration of low-speed vacancies outside of celestial bodies, where they move depending on gravity field gradient (with the second Space velocity) and variation of bodies' kinetic energy in the average equals to (3). So the general concentration of vacancies in phase ether at the average is double.

Besides, under small VII/c from (2), knowing distance between vacancies, it is possible to define their size and, accordingly, size of amer by following formula

ra = 4R VII /c, [m]


And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.
God saw that the light was good, and he
separated the light from the darkness.
Genesis [1; 3-4]

Simplified Model of Photon

The Photon (the quantum of electromagnetic emission) presents itself by the same ether vacancy as graviton. The Difference consists in that under its emission it is subjected to transverse oscillation, and real carrier of its energy is a shift and rotation (elecrtomagnetic) wave in corpuscular ether. Given vacancy is only "seed", which does not allow soliton package of joined wave to disintegrate. This wave has as shift (electric), so and rotation (magnetic) component of oscillations.

Its realization that is to say manifestation occurs in phase ether only i.e. inphase moving the vacancies and, consequently, masses along photon's path. This wave influences upon path of motion depending on asymmetries of density of vacancies and distribution of substance, generating difraction and interference phenomena.

And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered
to one place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so.
Genesis [1; 9]

Working Model of Electron and Positron

The electron is formed at excess of shift threshold of toughness of corpuscular ether. This occurs at energy a gamma-quantum Ek = 1022 KeV and above, depending on concentration of vacancies of phase ether on way of photon's moving.

Within the framework of present model, at excess of critical point of the ether (2e) occurs following. Joined to photon electromagnetic wave that is to say wave of deformation gains as angle speed, under which linear velocity of deformation reach of light velocity, and vacancies of phase ether are displaced intensively on periphery of vortex. This brings increasing of concentration of vacancies on wave (vortex) radius, which sufficient to failure of two spherical areas of corpuscular ether on a side of positive and negative shift (according to polarisations a gamma-quantum). The vacancies in this instance play the role of an original lubricant.

Herewith initial radius of each balls, revolving at the light speed, is

r1 = hc/πEk = 3.869 · 10-13 [m],

In this moment a vacancy of gamma-quantum, reached limiting amplitude of transverse fluctuations, tears on two - "positrino" and "negatrino". In one of the the balls instead of vacancy of photon turns out to be "positrino" - at most excited vacancy, possessing characteristic to generate at excess of energy threshold at most excited vacancy of opposite type. In other - "negatrino", symmetrical opposite vacancy.

Corpuscle track inside a sphere

Fig. 4. Corpuscle track iside a sphere.

We will track the fate these over-excited vacancies. For that will look at figure 4, where is shown path of ray (the track) of this vacancies inside ball.

For begin we will only note that ball of corpuscular ether, revolving with light velocity, displaces vacancies from itself on periphery, constantly forming layer of lubricant from "absolute" emptiness. The new portions of phase airwaves enter trough poles. This "emptiness" is an original mirror, reflecting ray inside. As shown in figure 4, over-excited vacancy becomes hostage after falling in ball, reflecting from its walls. Its route is direct only for internal corpuscular ether, but for external "watcher" it looks, as shown in figure 4.

For that reflected moving the vacancy and its joined waves will be eternal, it is necessary to observance conditions of phases and amplitudes balance. Except this, it is necessary for spherical symmetry of gravitons and "positrino-negatrino" emission.

According to working model "positrino" or "negatrino" can be radiated only on the wave crest, corresponding to maximum of excess of threshold of vacancy excitement. This occurs only once for period of wave. Consequently duplicateded length of joined wave must enter in balance of phases for reception of emission of "positrino" ("negatrino") symmetrical in opposite directions.

Thereby, balance of phases is concluded in equality of linear length of track of whole number of reflections of vacancy for two periods of light wave to integer even turns of sphere (condition of standing wave)

D n = D k = 2λ

here D is sphere diameter,
      λ is wave length,
      n is number of sphere turning on λ
      k - is number of reflections.

Fig 5. Amplitude balance.

Naturally, there is impossible an ideal coincidence, but amongst all close to it whole values it is fitted that, which satisfies the balance of amplitudes.

In our case this is balance between centrifugal power, which tear amers away from surface of sphere, and Coloumbe power of its holding on this surfaces

me c2/R = k e2 / R2

The most close to that two conditions approach only two numbers: 137 and 861. Herewith 861 is more hard value for existence of standing wave, but 137 is too less. So it is possible to take n = 861 / 2π. Thereby the ball of corpuscular ether, revolving with light velocity, "melts" to the value of classical radius of stable electron

re = 2π r1 / 861

In consequence of rotation of equator of electron by velocity of light, its body possesses the anisotropy characteristics, increasing to peripheries (the equator), which strive to dodecahedral structure.

So path of praised ray is not limited by equatorial plane, but is switched on other axis, making jump on dodecahedron directions. Herewith for full cycle from 861 reflections, ray spherical quasi-symmetrical runs around all dodecahedron facets 72 times. The Exception is the absence of three reflections (72*12=861+3) that causes electron nutation.

Besides that, singe time radiation of electrically excited vacancy for 861 reflections instead usual graviton causes the anomalous magnetic moment of electron.

Thereby, path of electrically excitated vacancy inwardly electron presents itself a complex cycle of motion, having full period 861 acts of graviton emission equal to

Tg =h/mec2 [s] ,

Electrically excitated vacancy facing with vacancies of phase ether, verging to surfaces of electron, generates gravitons with following frequency

ωa =2π 861/(Tg ) = (2π)2 / (αTg ) [s-1] ,

here α = 2π / 861 is exact value of Fine Structure constant.

The equality of full configurational cycle of moving the internal vacancy to integer number provides the stability of electron (the positron, proton and antiproton).

Exactly by presence of cycle, equal to multiple integer number acts of graviton emission, is explained stability of particles. The particles, which have not integer cycle are unstable. The life time of elementary particles (half-life) depends on two factors:

Both of these factors practically define the intensity of exchange by energy of particles with external world or back - degree its isolation. That is equitable for simplest particles - photon.

Anomalous greater masses of short-living particles we may explaine within the framework of proposed model by its increased graviton emission in connection to non-whole internal cycle that is to say big intensity of exchange with external medium.

God called the expanse "sky."
Genesis [1; 8]

Working Model of neutrino and antineutrino*

What is occurs, when particle die? Its soul - over-excited vacancy leaves with the electromagnetic wave - gamma-quantum. Remains the dead body - ball from corpuscular ether, which stay the owner of joined wave of phase ether, which energy is depending on intensities of death reaction, and very small fictituous (joined) mass, causing of inertial properties of ether. The remained moment of motion amount gives corresponding spine and spyrality. Its interaction with substance and field is measly and pro rata of velocitiy of this "piece of ice". It moves within the Space until meeting with conditions, when some soul-vacancy will breathe life in it, or will melt in eternal ether...

God said, "Let the land produce living creatures
according to their kinds: cattle, creeping things,
and wild animals, each according to its kind."

Genesis [1; 24]

Working Model of +/- Pi-mesons**

Let's visualise that body of electron or positron or neutrino turn out to be in zone of action of strong interactions. If at this moment under appropriating angle in this lifeless body, easy getting into the most heart of atom, will get the gamma-quantum an super-high energy, that it can initiate the flow of corpuscles-vacancies inwardly this original resonator.

Considering that knock is so strong, we will come to picture of internal reflection not one, but whole ensemble of neutral vacancies - gravitons. According to Pauli's principle electrically charged vacancy there can be only one. However exactly it, that is to say its electromagnetic wave, must define the condition of radiation of neutral vacancies (gravitons), through opening slightly "window" in mirror for floor-turn of body particles once. Since in structure of body of electron (or neutrino) whole 2*137=274 sub-tracks, that there can be exactly so much internal gravitons. Consequently, for floor-turn (π) such particle gives birth to 274 gravitons, i.e. it is 274 times heavy than electron.

  God called the dry ground "land," and the gathered waters
he called "seas." And God saw that it was good.
Genesis [1; 10]


From got model it is possible to find the size of "amer" and vacancies. Considering that gravity potential beside surfaces of electron is defined by following formula

[m2/s2] ,


Knowing that distance between gravitons on surfaces of electron, emitted across diameter is re , from (4) and (5), it is possible to calculate amer's radius

ra = 4re VII / c = 1.6156·10 -35 [m] (6)

Value (6) in accuracy corresponds to fundamental gravitational length [7]

Half-life of particles dependent on concentrations of vacancies of phase ether, must depend on parameters of particle motion - velocities and speedups. So, for sub-light velocities, life time of non stable particles (half-life), seems, will increase according to following formula

TV = T0 (1 / (1- (V/c)2)) [s].

Herewith becomes natural the phenomenon of increase life time of sub-light velocity muon. Becomes comprehensible possibility of management of half-life time by changing quantum potentials and real its sense. [8].

God saw all that he had made, and it was very good.
Gensis [1; 31]


  1. The ether is the base of Universe and the reason of arising the field and substance in itself.
  2. Corpuscles of the ether are the most small identical indivisible elements of Universe, by behaviour of which it is possible explain the known phenomena of Nature.
  3. Within the framework of offered model it is possible to describe the process of forming the substance and physical fields and explain such phenomena, as arising of electron-positron pair from gamma-quantum without breach of principle of conservation of amount of motion.
  4. Within the framework of proposed model it is possible to explain such phenomena, as increasing of life-time of particles under sub-light velocities without breach of even current of time and reason of stability of electron.
  5. There are two opposite flows of vacancies (on current experimental data a difference is less than 2%):

Between these flows, on the whole visibility, exists the balance that is to say amount of vacancies in Universe is a constant.


  1. Khaidarov K.A. Eternal Universe. - Borovoye, 2003.
  2. Khaidarov K.A. Gravitating Ether. - Borovoye, 2003.
  3. Nikolaev G.V. Modern electrodynamics and the reasons of its paradoxality. - Tomsk, 2002.
  4. Fritzius R. S. Emission-Absorption-Scattering (EAS) Sub-Quantum Physics. - 1997.
  5. Shipitzin V.F., Zhivoderov A.A., Gorbich L.G. Hypothesis of Space Structure , - Yeraterinbourg: Ural Univercity Publishers, 1996. - 120 p.
  6. Joined Mass - Physical Encyclopedial Dictionary, p.587. - Moscow, Soviet Enc. Publishers, 1983.
  7. Fundamental length - Physical Encyclopedial Dictionary, p.834. - Moscow, Soviet Enc. Publishers, 1983.
  8. Zakhariev B.N. A New Situation in quantum mechanics (about possibility of control оf spectrums, scattering, disintegration) - Soros Educational Journal, N7, 1996.

Karim Khaidarov
Borovoye, October 1, 2003.
* - added on October 4, 2003
** - added on October 5, 2003

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Знаете ли Вы, в чем ложность понятия "физический вакуум"?

Физический вакуум - понятие релятивистской квантовой физики, под ним там понимают низшее (основное) энергетическое состояние квантованного поля, обладающее нулевыми импульсом, моментом импульса и другими квантовыми числами. Физическим вакуумом релятивистские теоретики называют полностью лишённое вещества пространство, заполненное неизмеряемым, а значит, лишь воображаемым полем. Такое состояние по мнению релятивистов не является абсолютной пустотой, но пространством, заполненным некими фантомными (виртуальными) частицами. Релятивистская квантовая теория поля утверждает, что, в согласии с принципом неопределённости Гейзенберга, в физическом вакууме постоянно рождаются и исчезают виртуальные, то есть кажущиеся (кому кажущиеся?), частицы: происходят так называемые нулевые колебания полей. Виртуальные частицы физического вакуума, а следовательно, он сам, по определению не имеют системы отсчета, так как в противном случае нарушался бы принцип относительности Эйнштейна, на котором основывается теория относительности (то есть стала бы возможной абсолютная система измерения с отсчетом от частиц физического вакуума, что в свою очередь однозначно опровергло бы принцип относительности, на котором постороена СТО). Таким образом, физический вакуум и его частицы не есть элементы физического мира, но лишь элементы теории относительности, которые существуют не в реальном мире, но лишь в релятивистских формулах, нарушая при этом принцип причинности (возникают и исчезают беспричинно), принцип объективности (виртуальные частицы можно считать в зависимсоти от желания теоретика либо существующими, либо не существующими), принцип фактической измеримости (не наблюдаемы, не имеют своей ИСО).

Когда тот или иной физик использует понятие "физический вакуум", он либо не понимает абсурдности этого термина, либо лукавит, являясь скрытым или явным приверженцем релятивистской идеологии.

Понять абсурдность этого понятия легче всего обратившись к истокам его возникновения. Рождено оно было Полем Дираком в 1930-х, когда стало ясно, что отрицание эфира в чистом виде, как это делал великий математик, но посредственный физик Анри Пуанкаре, уже нельзя. Слишком много фактов противоречит этому.

Для защиты релятивизма Поль Дирак ввел афизическое и алогичное понятие отрицательной энергии, а затем и существование "моря" двух компенсирующих друг друга энергий в вакууме - положительной и отрицательной, а также "моря" компенсирующих друг друга частиц - виртуальных (то есть кажущихся) электронов и позитронов в вакууме.

Однако такая постановка является внутренне противоречивой (виртуальные частицы ненаблюдаемы и их по произволу можно считать в одном случае отсутствующими, а в другом - присутствующими) и противоречащей релятивизму (то есть отрицанию эфира, так как при наличии таких частиц в вакууме релятивизм уже просто невозможен). Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.

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