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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, June 22, 2004
THE NATURE OF LIGHT

as the Combined Oscillations of a Corpuscular and a Phase Aether
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia
(abbreviated Internet version)

A new concept of light founded on the theory of the aether is presented. It is shown that the modes of light are circulations in the aether. Light quanta appear as the joint oscillations of phase and corpuscular aethers. The conditions of its emission are determined by the power properties of the aether and are described by the discontinuous transition from one level of circulation of the aether to another according to the theorems of circulation. The propagation of a light quantum is determined by the dynamic interaction of corpuscular and phase aethers. It is shown that the bound (entangled) condition of photons and fundamental particles is a unified bipolar mode of joint oscillations of phase and corpuscular aethers.

The following model assumes the existence of a quasiisotropic, unified, practically incompressible and elastic aethereal medium [1, 4] throughout the Universe which constitutes the fundamental substance. It is the carrier of all energy, and the medium of all processes happening in the Universe. The model is based on the notions developed by the author [2-11], which present the aether as a bicomponent domain environment + those components being corpuscular and phase. We will analyze concepts of the light quantum and electromagnetic wave and problems connected with the emission, absorption and interference of light.

Centenary of "The Sleep of Reason"

Francisco Goya, 1799

What is a gedanken experiment?
It is a nonexistent practice, an other-worldly
experience, imagination of nothing.
Gedanken experiments are similar to sleeping
while awake.They are the bearers of monsters...

The arbitrary denial of the aether as the substratum of physical matter already contained within it the seeds of the dead-end destiny of 20th Century physics. However, this unfortunate choice which followed from a superficial interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment, has led to an avalanche of other wrong explanations.

As previously shown by author [5], the postulation of an absolute speed limit for light was made without a sufficient basis in fact. The apparent constancy of the speed of light in vacuum is determined only by the stringently constant temperature of the aether, and by its properties of superfluidity and masslessness, as well as the laws of the conservation of momentum and energy.

Actually the velocity of light varies depending on the optical density of substance and aether temperature. As was demonstrated more than 40 years ago, in an optically active media (lasers) the speed of light can reach values in the millions of kilometers per second, and as was established in just the last few years, can decrease in Bose condensates down to a few meters per second [12].

The development of quantum mechanics has shown that the communication of information between particles which are separated by some distance in space should, by logical necessity, be faster than the speed of light in empty space. This has been proven not only theoretically, but also in practical experiments by the violation of Bell’s Inequality [13].

Therefore, quantum mechanics has refuted SRT. A vieled recognition of this fact is found in the 1935 resolution of the so-called “EPR-paradox” [14]. If we don’t bend the rules of logic, as was done by J. Neumann who offered us unique "quantum logic", we must at a minimum recognize that at least one of the two theories, SRT or quantum mechanics, is incorrect. Substantially both theories are experimentally disproven by superluminal speeds and the violation of the causality principle in quantum mechanics.

The proliferation in physics of gedanken experiments has resulted in a fundamentally absurd, and even surrealistic, entangled picture of the world.

We will attempt to resolve the key problem in physics which resulted from the abandonment of the aether as the substratum of physical substance by returning to the aether.

Forces which are operational in the aether

As the author has previously demonstrated [6], the main force operational in the aether is normally hydrostatic pressure. Its value is so large, that it is the determining factor in processes occurring in the aether.

However, taking into account the practically absolute incompressibility of the aether and its bicomponental construction, the operation of this force is usually indirect, and is known to us through the phenomena which result from the circulation of volumes of the aether.

The following phenomena and concepts are defined by the property of superfluidity of the aether:

Physical essence of quanta of radiation

"What do we next? We can, and should, use the Quantum Theory of Radiation. Fermi showed how to do this for the case of Lippmann fringes. The idea is simple, but the details are somewhat messy. A good notation and lots of practice makes it easier."

Willis Lamb

Pursuant to Kelvin's theorem [16], which is named the Circulation Velocity Conservation Law, we obtain the following integral:

(1)

where u - is the circulation rate of environment [m/s]
      n - is an integer.

For an ideal environment, such as the aether, the circulation only equals values which are separated from each other by the factor K.

On this basis, a change of circulation is usually determined by:

dC/dt = 0

Where a local pressure gradient in the medium exceeds a level sufficient to overcome an environmental resistance to the origination of circulation, the value (1) discontinuity varies on K, which property of superfluid liquids was studied by Lars Onsager in 1949 [19]:

K = h/m [m2/s]

(2)

where h is PlanckТs constant,
      m is a weight involved in the flow of fluid.

This means that (1) determines the properties of emission quantization at local disturbances of the aether. Following Onsager and applying instead of the weight the concept of inertia [11], it is possible to write:

(3)

where inr is the reactive inertia [11] of the aether involved in circulation.

As Max Planck correctly interpreted it, the property of emission quantization is a property of action discretization [18]. There is no energy quantization in this case, as some assert, but only the quantization of circulation. As is apparent from (1), it is directly related to the necessity of the observance of the continuity of the medium. Substantially quanta of radiation can have any energy and lose it by any incremental amounts (Compton effect [20], absorption of energy of quanta on cosmological distances [1]). Since the aethereal medium is indissoluble, the aether cannot change its circulation continuously or fractionally. According to the theorem of circulation preservation, emission is only possible when a local fluctuation of pressure in the aether reaches the value needed for whole velocity circulation. In Nature there is no "a half of vortex".

Motions of the phase aether

As was described in [11], the phase aether represents a flat (bivariate) pseudo-gas having the properties of a saturated vapour. Its particles are asymmetric (unbalanced) and massless gyros which have an identical electrical dipole moment, which produces electric dipoles by its quantum. Its gyroscopic properties determine its specific interactions, which appear as electrical and magnetic phenomena.

In our working model we will assume that in the absence of an electrical field (pressure within the phase aether polarizing it), amers of the phase aether are coupled together in pairs. As a result, their electrical dipole moment is almost completely cancelled. The phase aether in this case is not polarized.

In the event of a gap in this connection, there are mechanical forces in the aether which restore equilibrium. There are two phenomena:

The motion of an unpolarized phase aether is accompanied by a phenomenon of gravitation, providing influx of the phase aether to substance for a phase change of amers of the phase aether into corpuscular amers. This motion is only a shadow of gravitation. The true cause of gravity is a pressure gradient in the aether.

The motion of a polarized phase aether is a magnetic field. As with any motion, it bears the property of specific inertia — the inertia of a magnetic field generating appropriate force. As such, the pressure in the phase aether does not change. This motion does not have any effect on the corpuscular aether. It is one of reasons that, except for specific materials such as ferromagnetics, the magnetic permeability of substance is almost the same as that of the aether.

The pressure of the phase aether caused by the polarization of amers (uncoupling) is transmitted to a corpuscular aether. It is one of the causes of the change of dielectric permeability with the density of material and phenomenon of “long-range interaction” in electromagnetic phenomena.

Reaction of the corpuscular aether

The corpuscular aether is the integrally fixed environment of the Universe, relative to which the Solar system moves with the speed of 390±30 [km/s]. Having the properties of a superfluid and massless liquid, the corpuscular aether has almost no influence on the motion of substance. The speed of its reaction to disturbances as discovered by the author [6], exceeds the velocity of light by many orders of magnitude.

However, there are at least two essential exceptions to this rule of the “no influence” of the aether. The immense hydrostatic pressure under which it exists, and its extremely large resistance to a frontal effect. We consider latter in detail, because it determines the character of wave motions in the aether.

Since the corpuscular aether is a superfluid liquid, it has no shearing strength. However, being incompressible, it creates resistance to a direct frontal effect. This drag appears in following cases:

 

The trajectory of operation of this pressure can be determined by Fermat’s principle, 1660 [27]

(4)

where δ - is a character of a variation,
      ds - is a differential of an arc,
      c - is a speed of wave propagation in the environment.

The beams defined by a Fermat's principle, bear the characteristics of an eikonal equation.

In our case this equation sets the trajectory not only at a minimum time for overcoming a given distance in the aether, but also at a maximum frontal pressure. That is the pressure at which motions of lateral shear are eliminated.

The concept of the light quantum

What are light quanta?
- "Of course today every rascal thinks he knows the answer, but he is deluding himself"

Albert Einstein

Research the author has conducted has shown that "the phenomenon of an electric displacement in vacuo" is the polarization of the phase aether. Thus it is necessary to distinguish two types of polarization:

And, in the second case, it is necessary to clearly distinguish what we consider: a single solitary wave – photon, and the superposition of its assemblage, which behaves absolutely differently.

In the case of such a superposition, there are theoretically possible, mathematically idealized objects, such as plane, cylindrical or spherical electromagnetic waves.

There only one type of circulation of the phase aether. It is a photon, and it must obey the principle of superposition, which is an effect of the properties of the ideal elasticity of the aether.

This local polarization arises at the moment of a photon emission (single circulation) and persists until the substantial discharge of the polarization energy is met.

In and of itself, this bunch of polarization cannot dissipate for the following reasons:

Thus, the light quantum is the special mode of oscillation of pressure of a corpuscular aether, in which pole there is a bunch of a polarized phase aether. This bunch is the circulation of the phase aether, which represents a peculiar Carnot engine, cyclically converting the kinetic energy of motion of the phase aether (energy of a magnetic field) into the potential energy of its pressure (energy of an electric field strength) and back again.

The oscillation of the phase aether has a vector of pressure (oscillation of an electric field strength) normal to the displacement vector of a bunch of the phase aether (propagation of light), as the direction of this movement is the vector of maximum drag of the corpuscular aether.

Therefore, while the amers of the polarized phase aether interact among themselves, the unified vector of the oscillations is the polarization vector of a photon.

In the case of the origin of a bipolar mode of the corpuscular aether at the light emission, or at its conversion in a birefringence medium, two bunches of polarization will be originated, between which there is a power and information connection keeping common energy and momentum of the system of two photons. In other words, the common two-photon mode has constant energy and momentum which is the sum of the energy and momentum of its two photons..

Contrary to the prejudices in modern physics, the trajectory of a photon is completely determined from the moment of its birth. The pressure discontinuity of the corpuscular aether arising at the moment of emission, which in the author’s opinion is the reason for the origin of circulation (vortex) of polarization’s moving with the speed of light, is transmitted in the aether with the speed of a fast gravitation [6]. As a consequence, the trajectory of a photon is, in practical terms, completely determined at the moment of its emission. The apparent randomness of its appearance in different points of a field of interference is an effect of the "random" distribution of its initial radiation angle.

Phenomena of interference and diffraction

" The photon interferes with itself ".

Paul Dirac

Contrary to Dirac’s famous pronouncement, a photon does not interfere with itself. The phenomenon of interference arises when there is a "obstacle" in the path of a photon. The author has discovered [6] that waves of pressure in the aether propagate with a speed that exceeds the speed of light by many orders of magnitude. The pressure periodically created by the electrical component of a soliton bunch of polarized phase aether generates cyclic changes of pressure in the path of a photon. Since the pressure propagates much faster than the soliton itself, it causes a reaction between the photon (soliton) and obstacles found along the path of its propagation.

As a result, the trajectory of a photon and travelling speed of a bunch of polarization undergo changes.

It is easy to see that variations of pressure in a cavity on the path to an obstacle or around slits through which a photon can pass, shape the particular trajectories of motions according to the Huygens-Fresnel Wave Principle. Moreover, the initial point is the Fermat Variational Principle (4).

The observable "instantaneous" birth and loss of a photon can not be explained from the point of view of the physics of the 20th century, with its restricted speed of light, but can be explained naturally by the supposition that in the initial (and final) moment of a photon’s life its energy lies in the corpuscular aether as a pressure discontinuity around the birthplace (and loss) of the photon. Only after a long period, comparable with the period of oscillation of a photon (corresponding to own frequency) , this potential energy of the corpuscular aether pressure transforms itself into a local polarization of the phase aether. The latter is a photon itself.

here B = λD/l - is an interference bandwidth,
      D - is a distance up to a screen,
      λ
- is a wavelength of light,
      l - is a slit width,
      b - sizes of a light source.

With the help of the proposed model, it is easy to explain the sinusoidal character of an interference figure in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a mode of the score of separate photons (see fig. 1 taken from [22]).

Fig. 1. Mach-Zehnder fringes formed from series of single-photon measurements as a function of the path difference expressed in terms of the wavelenth. The vertical axis shows the number of photodetections in arm 4 for (a) 1 sec and (b) 15 sec intergation times per point. The latter fringes have visibility 98 % [21, 22].

Only the supposition that all possible stochastics of the process of "emission - propagation - detecting" is kept in a uniform angular "stochastic" distribution of sorce atom emission, can give such picture.

Physics of origination of modes of light

Physics of origination of wave modes of light till now was determined by known models of standing waves, when consider that the standing wave is a superposition of counter waves of standard speed (light speed) which correspond to natural frequencies of a resonance inducing cavity.

However such approach has as a minimum following physical defect.

The effects are watched which testify to carry of the information about a trajectory of a photon (mode) with speed on many orders exceeding speed of light. It is, for example, known experiments with quantum eraser, in which the information on forthcoming path of already radiated photon can be obtained by detecting bound with it by one elementary process of emission the second photon (see fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Quantum eraser - One of two atoms (solid circles) emits two photons ¢i and γi. Interference is observed in ¢ scanning detector d0. Beamsplitters BS1-BS3 direct γ to four detectors. A click in detectors d3 or D4 provides which-patt information on γ, preventing interference in ¢. A click in detectors di or D2 erases which-path information and restore-interference in ¢. Figure from [23, 24].

In this case substantially there is no "erasing". Simplly at the moment of emission of bound pair photons the angle coordinates of its radiation determine with speed of the fast gravitation [6] the future trajectory of motion of a photon - bunch of polarization of the phase aether. In this moment the destiny of a photon is already determined.

Thereby, the process of origination of a mode is determined by oscillations of the corpuscular aether between walls of a resonance inducing cavity. It confirms by known experiment with a micromaser on vacuum dissipation [25], in which " vacuum oscillations " in a cavity, where there is no photon are observed (see figure 3. [26]).

Fig. 3 "Scattering off the vacuum" - An excited atom approaching an empty cavity can be reflected for slow enough velocities. The vacuum cavity field serves as an effective potential barrier for the center-of-mass of the atom.

Thus, the field of pressure of the corpuscular aether, interacting with the electrical component of a photon, determines a picture of a mode of a light wave. It is the physical basis of phenomena of an interference, refraction and diffraction of light distinguished from similar phenomena for sound waves in material media.

Bound photons as poles of a single bipolar mode

Recently many experiments with the "entangled" photons and "entangled" condition of particles and atoms, with "teleportation" of photons are made. To say frankly, an explanation of these experiments are too phantasmagorial and entangled.

Substantially, all these phenomena are manifestation of modes of joint oscillations of corpuscular and phase aethers. Physics of this process is simple. At two-photon emission, at usage of a birefringence the bipolar mode of oscillations of the corpuscular aether will be originated. In poles of this mode two photons are moving, if it is a mode of light. In other cases in poles there can be substantional particles.

At external effect on one of poles both information, and the energy is transmitted between poles with the speed of the fast gravitation [6]. Figuratively expressing, these poles are Siam twins, between which the exchange of energy and momentum according to laws of preservation is occured. But of course, the SRT far-fetched law about limitation of transmitting speed of the pulse and energy with velocity of light is not performed.

Quantum beats

One more confirmation of the offered concept is quantum beats, which are obtained experimentally by many physicists [24, 28]. Beats arise whenever two or more frequencies of a wave are simultaneously present. When an atom in the excited state undergoes decay along two transition pathways, the light produced in the process is expected to register a beat note at the difference frequency, ωα - ωβ, in addition to the individual transition frequencies , ωα and ωβ. However, when a single atom decays, beats are present only when the two final states of the atom are identical (see. Fig. 4).

There are no beats when the final states are different (b), since physically this is emission of two independent photons, that is photons of different modes.

In case of a relaxation of atom into a single level these are two photons of one bipolar mode.

Fig. 4. Quantum beats. (a) When the atom passes from two top levels of excitation to a common lower level one two-photon mode will be originated. Two transition frequencies make beats in radiated bound photons. (b) There are no beats when low levels are not the same. In this case each photon has the independent mode [24, 28].

The explanation of this phenomenon by modern quantum physics is so foggy, that it is possible to name it as really entangled.

Conclusions

As a result of the researches, carried out by present author, is clarified, that

- the photon represents soliton structure of polarized phase aether, which propagation is dictated by variations of pressure of the corpuscular aether and its trajectory is absolutely determined from the moment of emission;

- the phenomena of origination of modes of a light wave in cavities, interference and diffraction of light as against similar phenomena for sound waves are determined by interaction of electrical component of a photon and caused by it the pressure oscillations of the corpuscular aether spreading many times faster of light;

- the phenomena of a lamb-shift, quantum eraser, bound ("entangled") photons, teleportation of conditions of photons, fundamental particles and atoms can be simply explained and yield a physically clear picture within the framework of the bicomponent model of the aether presented here as the outcome of oscillations of pressure of the corpuscular aether with the speed of fast gravitation.

Thanks

The author is grateful to member of the American Optical Society (OSA) V. V. Petrov (Nikolaev city, Ukraine) for granting of the fresh information in the field of optical researches. He brings thanks to V. V. Petrov, N. N. Noskov (National Nuclear Center, Almaty, Kazakhstan), J. Kern (Stuttgart, Germany), N. V. Kupriaev (FIAN, Samara, Russia) for questions and discussion of the problem, considered in the article. The author is grateful to Christopher Jon Bjerknes (USA) for edition of the English version of the article. Author brings his thanks to Rodney Loudon, Ashok Muthukrishnan, Marlan Scully, Suhail Zubairy and Arthur Zajonc whose articles in the Journal of the Optical Society of America, inspired me for this work.

References

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Karim Khaidarov
Borovoye, June 22, 2004.

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