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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 1, 2005
SUPERCOMPRESSED STATES of MATERIAL and QUASARS

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

Abstract. The application of the concept of meta-solid states of substance to quasar physics is explained. It is shown that the intrinsic redshift of QSO, discovered and investigated by Halton Arp, Geoffrey Burbidge and E. Margaret Burbidge, is a gravitational redshift. It is shown that quantization of QSO redshifts discovered by K.G. Karlsson may be explained by phase changes in meta-solid material of QSO. The offered approach locates QSO in continuous sidereal evolution as late states of the line of white dwarfs in active galaxies.

“… I will deliver him; I will protect him, because he knows my name".
[Psalm. 91]

Basing on properties of QSO intrinsic redshifts discovered and investigated by Halton Arp [1-19], Geoffrey Burbidge And Е. Margaret Burbidge [24, 15-16], and on property of quantization of QSO redshifts discovered by K. Karlsson [20-23], and phenomenon of phase transition of substance in meta-solid state under an operation of hyper pressure, we will try to find a way to understand QSO physical nature.

However for understanding physical nature of phenomena happening in quasars and in Space generally, it is necessary to remove obstacles on this way. Therefore in the beginning we will stay on criticism of modern fallacies in theoretical physics.

Myths of a relativism

A myth about photon as a cannon-ball. This myth was born in antique times. Mathematical development it has received in works of Isaac Newton as the corpuscular theory of light. The mass property was assigned to a corpuscle of light. From that followed that it is possible the turning of a trajectory of a beam of light on a parabola at high accelerations, as it happens to the cannon-ball in a gravitational field of the Earth.

Fairy tales about "Schwarzschild’s radius", "Howking’s black holes" were born from here. However, these fairy tales a little bit ancient. In 1795 mathematician Pierre Simon Laplace wrote [25]:

"If diameter of a star with the same density as Earth, would surpass diameter of the Sun in 250 times, any beam emitted by it can not escape it owing to attraction of a star. Hence, it is possible, that largest of luminous celestial bodies are invisible for this reason."

But as it was determined in 20-th century, photon has not mass and can not interact with gravitational field as weighty material.

The fairy tale about angular beam deflection of light near to the Sun was revived by the Einstein in the beginning of 20 century and it has been picked up by apologist of a relativism Eddington. It is sad, but all these fairy tales are considering as a science till now.

Really, any gravitational field can not change a vector of beam of light irrepressibly and furthermore can not reverse direction of light. It would break a conservation law of a momentum. There are only phenomena of a transversal drift of a beam known as a stellar abberation of James Bradley and phenomenon of George Nikitin, at which the momentum of vector of light is constant, and there are only Galilean composition of velocities and apparent angular variation caused by last.

It is easy to check an absence of real irreversible turn of a beam of light. It can be seen in a good telescope. At cover light of a distant star by near star there should be two images of a distant star: one, lagging on the part of pass of a distant star, and another, anticipating, on the part of rise. And at absence of cover, but during close transiting of a beam it should be visible bending of a trajectory of a distant star. But nobody observed it.

Fig. 1. Gedanken, but unobservable experiment on bifurcation of the image of a covered star.

When relativists consider strong gravitational fields, they forget that the square of speed of light is a limiting gravity potential, and it can be never overcome, even in the consistent relativistic theory.

Substantially, on fly by weak gravitational fields that create the Earth and Sun, light is under influence only weak gravitational change of frequency appropriate to a difference of gravity potentials of points of emission and a point of reception. Here we can record

(1)

Here: φ – is gravity potential on a surface of a celestial body, γ – is gravitational constant, M – is mass of celestial body, R – is its radius; f0 – is frequency of light on an emitting surface; f – is a frequency of the same quantum at a point of reception far from celestial body.

The rightness of expressions (1) is checked multiply, including series of experiments similar to Pound – Rebka experiment and measurement of Fraunhofer lines redshift on a limb of the Sun.

If we accept a reasonable position, which declared that all material consists of the matter (the aether), that is any material is only a part of the matter, and for the carrier main matter there is everywhere constant and maximal gravitational potential c2, the attitude of potentials in (1) should be inevitable less than 1.

Really, let’s write Z definition

Z = (f0 – f)/f

thence and from (1) we may get

or

φ/c2 = (Z-1 + 1)-1 < 1

Impossibility of “black holes" and “Schwarzschild’s radius” is clear from here. Light flying even through the strongest gravitational field has lost only a part of its energy for overcoming of a gravitational potential. That is for an observer located far from a massive celestial body, light emitted from a surface of this body will have redshift uniquely dependent on the attitude M/R (see fig.2).

φ = γM/R = γρ4πR2/3 = γρS/3

where ρ – is average density of celestial body; S – is area of surface of the body.

Fig. 2. Connection between gravity potential and gravitational Z.

A myth about superfar and fantastically large quasars. Assigning Hubble nature to redshift of QSO, that is considering, that a distance up to QSO is proportional to its redshift, relativistic physics considers QSOs as out-of-limit far and fantastically great celestial bodies. There are many laughable cosmogony theories are constructed on these suppositions. Their origin is connected with mess in heads of cosmologists. They consider the redshift as an indivisible physical phenomenon, though, indeed there are as minimum 3 types of reasons of redshift in Nature:

- Doppler shift caused by difference of velocities of source and receiver;

- Hubble redshift caused by dissipation of energy of light upon “cosmogonic” distances ("tired light");

- Trumpler redshift connected with high stellar luminosity;

- gravitational redshift caused by difference between gravitational potentials of point of emission and point of observing.

Notwithstanding of relativistic myths, during a lot of years the discoverer and researcher of quasars Dr. Halton Arp shows that quasars are associated physically with some known and not so far galaxies. He accumulates large statistical material of observations, that is astronomical facts, which nobody can refuse [1-19].

According to H. Arp quasars have "intrinsic" or "inherent” redshift, which does not depend on distance of observing. The intrinsic redshift of quasars is determined by the canonical formula (see, for example, [18-19])

Zi = (Zv +1)/(Zg + 1) - 1

(2)

here Zi – is intrinsic redshift of QSO, Zv – is QSO redshift, observable from the Earth, Zg – is a redshift of galaxy, in which QSO is.

Besides D. S. MacMillan shows in his paper [26] that under the data of geodesic sessions VLBI for 1979 – 2003 many of quasars have significant nonzero proper motions. The accuracy of definition of proper motions of 580 sources is 0.5 mas/year and better, and for 50-60 objects their proper motion differ from zero more, than 3σ. Thus, it is necessary to accept or superluminal velosity of quasars or to consider that their redshift has no relation to distances up to them.

Quasars are really bright, but not fantastically large celestial bodies. According to radiointerferometric data quasars are point like sources having size les than 0.4 mas.

The phenomenon of quantization of quasars redshift discovered by K. Karlsson and investigated in detail by H. Arp, G. Burbidge, E.M. Burbidge can help to understand QSO nature.

Quantization of QSO redshift

In 1971 K. G. Karlsson [20] examining statistics of QSO redshifts has found out that it has explicitly cluster character with practically equal steps on frequency.

Using statistical analysis H. Arp has found out, that if quasars associate with galaxies located on small angular distances from them, the statistical quantization of QSO redshifts becomes clearer.

Continuing these researches, carefully taking into account all accompanying indications of close located QSO and galaxies, H. Arp has come to a conclusion that these objects have not only close angular arrangement, but also are close linearly, physically. Many cases of connection of galaxies and QSO by radio bridges and visible stellar sleeves are observed.

Applying the formula (2) to allocation "intrinsic" component of QSO redshift not dependent from distance, H. Arp has received even more legible quantized distribution of QSO redshift. It has appeared that the redshifts have only fixed values from series [18]:

Z = 0.061; 0,30; 0,60; 0.96, 1.41; 1.96; 2.63 …

In mathematical convenient form this sequence can be recorded as:

Z = exp((n + a)/b) - 1; a = 0,285; b = 4.874

(3)

here n = 0, 1, 2, 3 … - a natural number, substantially a number of QSO type.

Found n explicitly falls into to series of any homogeneous physical states of QSO.

In opinion of the author the QSO intrinsic redshift is gravitational shift (1), and the quantum formula (3) can assign the appropriate value of a gravity potential to an emitting QSO surface

(4)

where M – is mass of QSO, R – is a radius of QSO photosphere.

QSO temperature

Considering, that the QSO surface is ionized gas, knowing a gravity potential of radiating surface (4), it is possible to find a temperature of QSO surface from a condition of equality of a mean velocity of electron, the easiest corpuscle of photosphere, and from orbital velocity on an average level of the photosphere.

For this purpose it is enough to accept that the most probable velocity of the easiest corpuscles of high layer, i.e. electrons, is equal to an orbital velocity for the given altitude (radius R), and the distribution of electrons submits to Maxwell’s statistics (1), that is

v1 = ( γM/R)0.5 = (2kTe/me)0,5 [m/s] ,

where γ – is gravitational constant.

From here we can obtain expression for temperature of electrons of surface of gas sphere [41]

Te = γMme / 2kR [oK],

(5)

This temperature is color temperature of a gas sphere, which differs from effective temperature by displacement of a spectrum of radiation in high-frequency area because of thermoemission of electrons out of limits of gas sphere. For usual stars temperature (5) differs from effective temperature a little and this difference can be taken into account having entered the color correction equal, for example, for the Sun ct = 1,093. However for QSO seeing to their spectrum such correction will be large. Approximated value obtained by the author is ctQSO = 2.

Except this correction in connection with large gravitational QSO redshiftt it is necessary to enter the correction Kred into the law of radiation. The sky of QSO is not black.

From the formulas (4) and (5) with the corrections it is possible to get temperature for each type of QSO

(6)

where Kred – is correction to the law of radiation; me – is electronic mass; c – is speed of light; k – is Boltzmann's constant; Ct – is color correction.

Calculated by using formula (6) values of QSO temperatures are listed in table 1.

Table 1. Characteristic temperatures of QSO radiation.

QSO type (n)

Zi

Te

Tem.corr

φ/c2

Kred

0

0,060

8,42E+07

7,94E+07

0,057

1,000

1

0,302

3,44E+08

1,85E+08

0,232

0,700

2

0,598

5,55E+08

1,74E+08

0,374

0,500

3

0,962

7,27E+08

1,11E+08

0,490

0,300

4

1,409

8,67E+08

8,28E+07

0,585

0,230

5

1,958

9,81E+08

7,13E+07

0,662

0,215

6

2,632

1,07E+09

5,92E+07

0,725

0,200

Thus we came to the very important conclusion that quasars have quantized, fixed temperatures of an emitting surface. Besides having divided (4) on radius of radiation it is possible to get a value of gravity on QSO surface

(7)

As in a right side of expression (7) for a fixed type of QSO only R is a variable, it is possible to make important conclusion about behaviour of mass of QSO as Hookean elactic body.

Supercompressed states of substance

In paper [42] there was shown, that at pressure higher than 3·1011 [Pa] the usual substance passes in specific "meta-solid" state. Such state is observed by seismologists in Earth interior already for a long time. It is a solid core of the Earth. Material in such phase state is received in laboratory conditions as exotic meta-stable states.

Singularity of meta-solid state is that the pressure above critical begins to squeeze electronic shells of atoms, and they decrease at a rate of proportional to compression. As the compression process of electronic shells is absolutely elastic, all energy of compression passes in internal potential energy of electronic shells.

The compression strength grows of proportionally mass density of substance (in inverse proportion to nuclear volumes). Therefore for the description of elastic compression of substance in out-of-line conditions the author enters new concept – the modulus of a mass elasticity Km, which is a physical constant

Km = B/ρ [m2/s2],

(8)

where ρ – is mass density of substance [kg/m3].

As it is visible from (8) this modulus represents a potential. Its quantitative value is found by the author from a condition of balance of elastic forces in atom

(9)

where α - is the fine structure constant; c – is speed of light; me - is electronic mass; mp – is mass of proton.

Using value of the potential (9) it is possible to find critical pressure of demolition "rigidity" of electronic shells, as it was made by the author

pm = 2mp· Km / VH = 1.5·1011 [kg/ms2], [Pa],

(10)

where VH ≈ 1.1·4πR3H/3 - is "hydrogenous" volume with the account of dodecahedron packaging, RH - is radius of the first electronic shell of atom of hydrogen (the first Bohr's radius).

Thus at pressure higher 3.0·1011 Pa between pressure p and density ρ of meta-solid substance of any chemical composition there is a direct unambiguous conformity

ρ = p / Km = 3.23·10-8 p [kg/m3]

(11)

On the basis of it the author offered the concept of existence of solar meta-solid core and concept of meta-solid nature of white dwarfs [41 - 43]. Developing these ideas we can show, that QSO is a prolongation of the line of white dwarfs.

Supercomressed states of material in celestial bodies

Any celestial body can be presented as set of the enclosed each other orbs of different phase states of substance. So for example, the Earth consists of atmosphere, hydrosphere and lythosphere. On closer examination Earth’s solid shell is stratified on more small-sized levels being under different pressure and in this connection having different phase states and chemical composition.

Same it is possible to tell not only about planets, but stars and QSO.

In particular for hyperpressure existing in QSO interior the phase transition in more compressed state should be characteristic in connection with destruction of more and more strong internal electronic shells of atoms.

The abbreviated structure of QSO and white dwarf is shown in a fig. 3.

Fig. 3. The enclosed structure of QSO.
а - is low Boltzmannian gas atmosphere; b, c, d ... - are levels of meta-solid phase states of substance.

Because of an accretion of substance the QSO grows smoothly up to the occurrence of condition of the next phase transition (destruction of the next electronic shell of atoms). Thus between phase transitions its surface has according to (4) a constant gravity potential generating fixed redshift of radiation. At reaching condition of formation of a new phase transition in center of QSO, it avalanchely passes in a new (next) state.

Low Boltzmannian atmosphere of QSO does not hide discrete character of states and transitions, as according to (7) gravity on surface is inversely proportional to QSO radius, and the characteristic altitude of Boltzmannian atmosphere behaves in the same way

h = kT/mg ~ RQSO,

where m - an effective molecular mass of atmosphere.

Experimental validation

Using the offered approach the author processed the data on quasars from [18]. Thus the diagram of accretion QSO growth, shown on a fig. 4 in pink line was obtained. For leveling of visible stellar magnitudes of two associated groups of QSO between NGC 622 and UM 341 the correction giving them compatibility was entered. The initial and computational data of quasars are listed in table 2.

Table 2. Parameters of quasars of different types.

object

mvis

Zobs

Zint exp

Zint tab

dZ

TQSO oK

mabs

L [J/s]

M/Msun

RQSO [km]

density [kg/m3]

NGC 622

14,1

0,017

-

-

-

-

-26,1

8,2E+38

 

 

 

UB1

18,4

0,910

0,878

0,962

-0,08

1,11E+08

-21,8

1,6E+37

257

774

2,6E+14

BS01

19,0

1,460

1,419

1,409

0,01

8,28E+07

-21,2

9,0E+38

352

888

2,4E+14

SDSS

18,9

1,501

1,459

1,409

0,05

8,28E+07

-21,3

9,9E+36

368

930

2,2E+14

SDSS

19,3

2,749

2,686

2,632

0,05

5,92E+07

-20,9

6,9E+36

600

1222

1,6E+14

FIRST

17,8

0,344

0,322

0,302

0,02

1,85E+08

-22,4

2,7E+37

122

781

1,2E+14

SDSS

18,6

1,522

1,480

1,409

0,07

8,28E+07

-21,6

1,3E+37

423

1067

1,7E+14

SDSS

19,2

1,049

1,015

0,962

0,05

1,11E+08

-21,0

7,5E+36

178

536

5,5E+14

UM 341

16,6

0,399

-

-

-

 

-24,1

1,3E+38

 

 

 

SDSS

18,4

1,666

0,906

0,962

-0,06

1,11E+08

-22,3

2,5E+37

323

973

1,7E+14

SDSS

18,6

0,718

0,228

0,302

-0,07

1,85E+08

-22,1

2,1E+37

106

679

1,6E+14

4S

21,7

0,879

0,343

0,302

0,04

1,85E+08

-19,0

1,2E+36

25,6

163

2,8E+15

SDSS

19,0

0,745

0,247

0,302

-0,05

1,85E+08

-21,7

1,4E+37

89

565

2,3E+14

UM 339

18,2

1,310

0,651

0,598

0,05

1,74E+08

-22,5

3,0E+37

145

573

3,7E+14

SDSS

19,3

1,805

1,005

0,962

0,04

1,11E+08

-21,4

1,1E+37

213

643

3,8E+14

SDSS

19,5

3,183

1,990

1,958

0,03

7,13E+07

-21,2

9,0E+36

473

1055

1,9E+14

SDSS

19,1

0,734

0,239

0,302

-0,06

1,85E+08

-21,6

1,3E+37

85

540

2,6E+14

SDSS

19,1

0,781

0,273

0,302

-0,03

1,85E+08

-21,6

1,3E+37

85

540

2,6E+14

Fig. 4. The evolutional diagram of QSO.
(On the right is legend of QSO types, see the formula (3) and further).

Conclusions

As a result of application of aethereal approach and the concept of meta-solid states of substance developed by the author to a problem of QSO, it is found out following:

Acknowlegments

The author is grateful to Dr. Halton Arp (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Germany) and Nikolay Noskov (National Nuclear Center, Kazakhstan) for scientific and moral support of this research, to Prof. Alexey A. Potapov (Institute of Dynamics of Systems and Theory of Control of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia) for imroptant remarks.

Karim Khaidarov
Almaty, July 1, 2005.

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Знаете ли Вы, что в 1974 - 1980 годах профессор Стефан Маринов из г. Грац, Австрия, проделал серию экспериментов, в которых показал, что Земля движется по отношению к некоторой космической системе отсчета со скоростью 360±30 км/с, которая явно имеет какой-то абсолютный статус. Естественно, ему не давали нигде выступать и он вынужден был начать выпуск своего научного журнала "Deutsche Physik", где объяснял открытое им явление. Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.

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