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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, August 18, 2008

RADIOFREQUENCY METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
DISTANCES TO COSMIC EXPLOSIONS

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

The method of measurement of distances to cosmic explosions, for example, supernonae and quasars with active accretion based on variability of speed of electromagnetic waves in the Space is offered. The recommendations to practical implementation of the method by the astronomers and radioamateurs are given.

“True knowledge is a knowledge by causes”
Fransis Bacon

As the research practice shows, the existing methods of estimation of distances up to such space objects, as galaxies are disputable. Often these methods meet only to sights of the developer of a method, but do not correspond to the facts received by independent ways, or a method contradicts logic.

Some estimations, for example, by redshift, give large difference (dispersion of an estimation) of distances in comparison with estimations on cefeids or morphological analysis of galaxies. In case of an estimation of distance by redshift such difference is explained by complex nature (gravitational, Doppler, thermal, Hubble and etc.) of observable “total” redshift, and frequently it has low correlation with distance up to a galaxy. It repeatedly indicated in the papers [1-10] of alive classic of astrophysics Halton Arp, who has investigated morphology of many galaxies and made becoming classical "Arp's Catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies". His reasons are simple and clear: If in a telescope we see the room fly and elephant occupying an identical solid angle, and a method of estimation of distance up to them gives same distance, such method is false.

The hope has appeared in 1970-ths, when the phenomenon of interstellar dispersion was discovered, and it detected a correlation between distance up to a pulsar and lag of radio signal from it concerning the moment of arrival of optical pulse [11].

However the hope could be dissolved in relativistic mythology. For frequent dispersion of electromagnetic waves the origin origin from mythic clouds of plasma in the Space was attributed.

Really, as it is established by the author [12,13], the speed of electromagnetic waves undergoes a frequent dispersion in connection with finality of elasticity module of aether, the carrier of these waves.

For electromagnetic waves of higher 100 KHz frequency their speed c(f), as the function of frequency, is satisfactorily described by following formula [13]

(1)

where c¥ = 299792458 [m/s] is a speed of an electromagnetic wave of high frequency (for gamma-quanta); f0 = 1252,1 [Hz] is critical frequency of electromagnetic waves defined by properties of environment (media), the carrier of waves, that is aether.

From the formula (1) the expression for delay τ(f) in an interstellar dispersion follows, if we clean the last from influence of dispersion in a cloud of gas induced by supernova explosion [12]

(2)

where R is a distance up to object.

In formula (2) there is a distance in evident type up to object, so it is possible evaluate this distance through known delay of moment arrival of of radio signal from the object comparatively the moment of arrival of optical or gamma quanta, or for moment of arrival of radio signal of other frequency.

In the table 1 values of delays of interstellar dispersion disregarding dissipations in primary explosive cloud for different bands of frequency technically available to radioamateurs and astronomers are given.

Table 1. Delay of arrival of radio signal from cosmic objects

band

optic

aether

3400MHz

435MHz

145MHz

29MHz

21MHz

14MHz

7MHz

R [pc]

dt [mcs]

dt [ms]

dt [min]

dt [hour]

dt [day]

dt [day]

dt [day]

dt [day]

dt [day]

100

4,5E-08

2,0E-04

2,3E-05

2,4E-05

8,9E-06

2,2E-04

4,2E-04

9,5E-04

3,8E-03

220

9,7E-08

4,3E-04

5,0E-05

5,1E-05

1,9E-05

4,8E-04

9,1E-04

2,1E-03

8,2E-03

460

2,1E-07

9,4E-04

1,1E-04

1,1E-04

4,1E-05

1,0E-03

2,0E-03

4,4E-03

1,8E-02

1000

4,5E-07

2,0E-03

2,3E-04

2,4E-04

8,9E-05

2,2E-03

4,2E-03

9,5E-03

3,8E-02

2200

9,7E-07

4,3E-03

5,0E-04

5,1E-04

1,9E-04

4,8E-03

9,1E-03

2,1E-02

8,2E-02

4600

2,1E-06

9,4E-03

1,1E-03

1,1E-03

4,1E-04

1,0E-02

2,0E-02

4,4E-02

0,18

10000

4,5E-06

2,0E-02

2,3E-03

2,4E-03

8,9E-04

2,2E-02

4,2E-02

9,5E-02

0,38

22000

9,7E-06

4,3E-02

5,0E-03

5,1E-03

1,9E-03

4,8E-02

9,1E-02

0,21

0,82

47000

2,1E-05

9,4E-02

1,1E-02

1,1E-02

4,1E-03

0,10

0,20

0,44

1,77

1,0E+05

4,5E-05

0,20

2,3E-02

2,4E-02

8,9E-03

0,22

0,42

0,96

3,82

2,2E+05

9,7E-05

0,44

5,0E-02

5,1E-02

1,9E-02

0,48

0,91

2,1

8,2

4,7E+05

2,1E-04

0,94

1,1E-01

0,11

4,1E-02

1,03

1,97

4,4

17,7

1,0E+06

4,5E-04

2,02

2,3E-01

0,24

8,9E-02

2,23

4,25

9,6

38,2

2,2E+06

9,7E-04

4,36

5,0E-01

0,51

0,19

4,80

9,16

20,6

82,4

4,7E+06

2,1E-03

9,39

1,1

1,10

0,41

10,35

19,7

44,4

177,6

1,0E+07

4,5E-03

20,2

2,3

2,38

0,9

22,30

42,5

95,7

383

2,2E+07

9,7E-03

43,6

5,0

5,1

1,9

48,05

91,6

206

825

4,7E+07

2,1E-02

93,9

10,8

11,0

4,1

104

197

444

1777

1,0E+08

4,5E-02

202

23,4

23,8

8,9

223

426

957

3830

2,2E+08

9,7E-02

436

50,4

51

19

481

917

2063

8254

4,7E+08

0,21

940

109

111

41

1036

1976

4447

17786

1,0E+09

0,45

2026

234

238

89

2233

4259

9582

38330

2,2E+09

0,97

4366

504

513

193

4813

9178

20650

82600

τ/T = Δc/c

4,35E-18

1,96E-14

2,30E-15

8,63E-16

2,16E-14

4,11E-14

9,26E-14

3,70E-13

1,48E-12

The note: the first column gives distance up to object in parsecs. Others columns show delay of radio signal concerning speed of gamma-quanta, practically speed of optical photons, for different radiobands. The cells with delay of equivalent duration of active emission of supernova (~20 days), when the theoretically expected signal in the radioband is maximal, are marked in red. The last raw shows the relative value of electromagnetic wave delay that demonstrates the particular small size of velocity variation inaccessible for measurements in conditions of terrestrial laboratories during 20-th century.

Measurement of distances up to supernovae

The table 1 shows that in radiobands below 145 MHz the delay of radio signal concerning the speed of light can make many days that enables to observe “radio-tail” of supernova emission after its detection in optical band, thus having determined distance up to it precisely.

Supernovae are characterized of curve optical luminosity having plateau of a maximum lasted about 20 day. The radio emission has other structure. It has sharp, exponentially falling down peak with the beginning in the moment τ(f) and then during about 20 days growing as an integral of optical luminosity of supernova, slowly falling down only after the phase of active optical emission. It causes by that the radio emission of the first peak is a radiocomponent of electromagnetic pulse of supernova nuclear explosion lasted very short time. The second smooth peak is radio emission of the aether heated by high-power optical emission of supernova.

It is necessary to note here that the so-called The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect taken by astrophysical community “on hurrah”, is a myth. Any photon-photon interaction on radio frequency can not exist for the following reasons:

- The difference in wavelengths of exciting emission and radiofrequent CMB is too great, makes many decimal orders.

- The density of CMB emission is insignificant for a measurable effect existence.

- The linearity of aether is very high (linearity of relativistic “vacuo” is infinite) to receive such interaction.

Really there is absolutely another effect. Gamma-quanta, X-ray and optical photons lose energy subjecting Reighly dissipation on amers, the corpuscles of aether that is give back its energy to aether having normal temperature 2.7ºK and emitting Planck spectrum as any black body, appropriate to this temperature [3]. It confirms by character of polarization of scattered and combinational emission of radio galaxies.

Technically, the offered method is realized with the help of a two-frequent or multifrequent radio reception by an antenna of narrow directional diagram, for example, directional “wave duct” aerial with the gear for tracking known “fresh” supernova. A spectrum analyser with a capability of long (hours) signal accumulation approaches ideally as the recording device . Thus we can considerably increase signal-to-noise ratio and apply inexpensive antenna devices. The main task of registration is obtaining of a frequent profile of radio emission on the chosen direction and recovery a two-measurement function τ(f, t), where time t is read out from the known moment of supernova optical observation.

At use of means of statistical processing on all profile the τ(f, t) distribution will give us distance up to supernova with precise accuracy.

Definition of distances up to quasars and close double systems

Except of supernovae offered method allow to determine distances up to quasars and close double systems with active accretion. For this purpose it is not necessary to wait for explosions on them. The explosions on surfaces of observable quasars and close systems occur constantly.

Let's note that observable are only quasars, which are in a condition of active accretion. In itself a quasar, as it is proved by the author, is a celestial body with the supercompressed phase state of substance, as it is observed at pulsars and white dwarfs. Having super-high density and the supersmall volume, quasar has a very small surface for emission in a condition without accretion. The material dropping in its supersteep gravitational hole, intensively emits in all bands from X-rays up to radio waves.

Usually accretion goes falteringly, as a flow of material dropping on quasar is sporadic. It explaines observable sporadic of short-period variability of quasar luminosity.

This feature of accreting quasar emission allows to determine distance up to it by the offered radiofrequent method.

If we execute reception of quasar radiation on two and more frequencies, we shall calculate a function of cross correlation of these channels, to be exact, we will determine temporal shift in this function, thus we will receive τ(f1-f2, which give us using the formula (2) find the distance up to quasar easy.

The same reasoning are applicable to close double sidereal systems, between which there is an exchange of accretion material.

Technically, the offered method is realized with the help of two-frequent or broadband reception through a parabolic-reflector aerial of the narrow directional diagram, for example, usual receiver of a satellite TV Ku- or C-band with the gear of tracking behind celestial coordinates of known quasar.

A digital (computer-controlled) spectrum analyser with a capability of signal accumulation during minutes and with function of evaluation of cross correlation approaches as a recording device. Calculating cross correlation, we will take a value of interfrequent signal delay. Using this value we can calculate a distance up to quasar with precise accuracy.

Let's notice that all really observable objects, which now relativists name as “black holes” are authentically identified by Halton Arp as quasars. That it is objects falling under laws described above, and distance up to it can be measured by the offered method.

In addition it is possible to note the applicability of offered method for determination of distance up to sources of gamma-bursts or “hypernovae”, however thus it is necessary to mean that the values of signal delay in this case will be absolutely others. The distances up to these objects have other order.

Conclusions

The offered method will allow dramatically expand and update the scale of Space distances opening new capabilities for research in adjacent scientific fields.

The method is applicable in conditions of amateur radio astronomy and it will allow to receive much new information including cardinal discoveries in astrophysics by the astronomers and radioamateurs.

Such “fore” for the amateurs arises that the official astrophysics while firmly adheres to religious doctrines of relativism, and any encroachment on authority of SRT-GTR is chastised by excommunication from financing and from position. Besides it is possible to recollect that exactly from the radioamateur Grote Reber, but not from official science the era of radio astronomy began.

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful for technical advices to Arcady Solunia, the chief engineer of the "KazSat" Flight Control Center, (UN7ED), to Vlad Hamzin, the chief of the "KazakhTelecom" Bourabai Communication Node, (UN7EN), to alive classics of astrophysics Ph.D. Halton Christian Arp for his scientific and moral support of author's research in the field of quasar physics.

The author is grateful to Prof. Alexey Potapov (The Institute of dynamics of systems and control theory of RAS, Irkutsk, Russia) for constructive discussion this paper.

Karim Khaidarov,
August 18, 2007

References

  1. Arp, H.C., 1987, "Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies" (Berkeley, Interstellar Media)
  2. Arp, H.C., 1992, Redshifts of high-luminosity stars - the K effect, the Trumpler effect and mass-loss corrections. - Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. (1992) 258, 800-810
  3. Arp H.C. Discordant arguments in compact groups, Astroph. J., 1997, p 74-83.
  4. Arp, H.C., 1998, "Seeing Red" (Apeiron, Montreal)
  5. Arp H.C. Evolution of Quasars into Galaxies and its Implications for the Birth and Evolution of Matter, (Apeiron, Montreal, 1998).
  6. Arp, H.C., 2003, "A Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations" (Apeiron, Montreal)
  7. Arp, H.C., Burbidge, E.M., Burbidge, G. The Double radio source 3C 343.1: A galaxy QSO pair with very different redshifts, 2004, A&A 414, L37
  8. Arp H.C. Anomalous Redshifts, 2005.
  9. Arp, H.C. et al. Periodicities of Quasar Redshifts in Large Area Surveys. - Arxiv, 2005
  10. Arp H.C. Faint Quasars Give Conclusive Evidence for Non-Velocity Redshifts, 2005.
  11. Жаров В.Е. Сферическая астрономия. - Москва, 2002.
  12. Khaidarov K.A. Thr Invisible Universe. - BRI, Almaty, 2005.
  13. Khaidarov K.A. On Electromagnetic Waves Velocity. - BRI, Almaty, 2007.

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