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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, August 1, 2005

TEMPERATURE OF AETHER AND REDSHIFTS

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

The results of study refuting dogma about constancy of speed of light in vacuum were explained. It is shown that the wave of light, as well as any other physical wave, changes its velocity depending on parameters of environment of propagation. On the basis of study of parameters of type Ia supernovae and redshifts in spectra of stars and galaxies it is shown that the majority of physical phenomena observed in an astronomy connected to redshifts - intrinsic redshifts of galaxies, K-effect, geocentric anisotropy of distribution of galaxies can explained within the framework of the developing concept of a bicomponent aether. Thus is clarified that relativistic explanation of redshifts is artifact, luminosity of galaxies and distances up to them differ from accepted in a relativistic astronomy. The way of finding of true distances up to galaxies, in which supernovae were observed and way of finding of intrinsic redshifts of galaxies are given.

“… I will deliver him; I will protect him, because he knows My name".
[Psalm 91]

Basing on the discoveries which have been carried out by classics of an astronomy A. A. Belopolski [1], W. W. Campbell [2], R. J. Trumpler [3, 4], H. C. Arp [5 -23], study of redshift properties of stars and galaxies using a rich actual material on type Ia supernovae accumulated by the astronomers, and also basing on the offered concept of a bicomponent aether, let’s try to find true reasons of redshifts in spectra of stars and galaxies.

However for understanding of a physical nature of redshifts in the Space it is necessary to remove obstacles standing on this way. Therefore at the beginning we will stay on criticism of modern fallacies in theoretical physics and astrophysics.

The myths of a relativistic astrophysics

… " „The abolition of aether " was declared again in Nauheim on solemn meeting of opening of the congress (earlier Mr. Einstein made it in Salzburg). Anybody had not burst out laughing. I do not know, however, what will be at declaration of abolition of air".

Philipp von Lenard [24/25].

The myth about absence of aether. The absence of aether was necessary for existence of Einstein’s relativistic speculative constructions. If we recognize the presence of physical properties and energy "of physical vacuum", that is done by relativistic physics ambidextrously, it is necessary to recognize postulates of SRT and GTR as absurdity. If aether exists, there is no relativism. Being not in harmony with conscience, relativistic physics holds on to double moral: the aether does not exist, as that is requirement of SRT and GTR, but there is "the physical vacuum" having "the sea of energy" and "the sea of virtual particles" [P. Dirac]; the speed of light in vacuum is absolute constant and absolute limit of speeds, but there are "entangled states", teleportation with superluminal speed; there are virtual particles, which are possible to considered as existing, but at the same time absent depending of need of relativistic double book-keeping.

On logic of SRT and GTR the wave of light has no the physical environment of propagation. It is "anything", oscillating in "anything". However, from times of Faraday and Maxwell it is known that light is an electromagnetic wave generated by oscillations of physical fields - magnetic and electrical. Thus, relativistic light is not a physical wave, therefore it is not a subject of physics.

Only having discarded false principles of relativism, Einstein’s SRT and GTR, it is possible to open a way to development of physics as science, instead of dogmatic idolatory faith.

Really, as century and more years ago [Democritus, R. Des Cartes, R. Hooke, A. Fresnel, A. Fizeau, M. Faraday, J.C. Maxwell, J.J. Thomson, W. Kelvin] true physicists know that aether exists and it is possible to advance in physics only by studying its properties.

The myth of constancy of speed of light in vacuum. It was written very much about absurdity of principle of constancy of speed of light, many experiments refuting principles SRT and GTR were made [26, 27]. However, a constancy of speed of a light wave in vacuum, to which relativists are referring, remains not broken "pseudo-castle" of relativism. To tell true there is nothing to refute.

This statement of relativism is "pseudo-castle", a trick only because with other things being equal, not only speed of light, but also the velocity of sound and any other physical wave are constant. If we change parameters of the environment of propagation of a wave (temperature, density, composition), the velocity of a wave will change too.

We see it on an example of propagation of light through the transparent media, where the speed of light cs uniquely depends on optical density n:

cs = c0/n

(1)

here n - is a reduced density of medium, factor of refraction, c0 – is speed of light in "vacuum" that is in aether.

n is a "reduced" density, because density of "vacuum", free from substance aether is adopted as n= 1.

As experience displays, n is greater than 1 (transparent dielectrics), and it is less than 1 (smooth surface of conductors, active environments of lasers - N. G. Basov, 1966 [28]) depending on optical density of the medium, that is density of aether in substance.

The equality n0 = 1 for "vacuum", that is for aether, is performed only because its temperature (2.723 0K, discovered by Prof. Erich Regener, 1933, Stuttgart, Germany [29]) and its density (2.818 kg/m3, obtained by the author, 2003 [34]) are constant. In usual conditions the density of aether varies only in substance. However in Space there are conditions for change both density and temperature of aether. These conditions form by powerful light emission of stars and observed during more than century. It is difficult to note all astronomers, who found out this phenomenon: it is a classic of Russian astronomy Aristarch A. Belopolski finding out in 1887 asymmetry of "Doppler" displacement of the brightest stars ~5 km/s in a direction of solar apex - antiapex and divergence between "Doppler" and parallactic solar velocity concerning nearby stars [1], it is a classic of astronomy W.W. Campbell, who discovered in 1991 K-effect, relation of redshift to absolute luminosity of stars [2], it is R. J. Trumpler, who carefully and perennually researched K-effect, and proved its difference from relativistic and gravitational redshifts [3, 4].

“The universe is unified, infinite and motionless...
It can not decrease or shrink, as it is infinite...
Giordano Bruno

The myth of relativistic scattering of galaxies was born from nonsense of Einstein - Freedman "theory" about blowing up Universe into "anything" and usage by relativists the discovery of Edwin Hubble, statistical relation between distances up to galaxies and redshifts in their spectra.

In 1926 E. Hubble has found out that the close galaxies are statistically fit to a line of regression, which in the terms of Doppler shift of a spectrum can be characterized in almost constant parameter

H = VD / R [km/(s Mps)],

here VD – is a shift of spectrum converted in Doppler speed [km/s], R - distance from the Earth up to a galaxy [Mps]

Really E. Hubble did not assert a Doppler nature of these shift, and in 1929 discoverer of novae and supernovae Fritz Zwicky has connected these shifts with energy loss by light quanta on cosmogonic distances. Moreover, in 1936 on the basis of study of distribution of galaxies E. Hubble has come to a conclusion that it can not be explained by Doppler effect [50].

However nonsense has triumphed. To galaxies with large redshift the almost velocity of light in a direction from the Earth is assigned.

Analyzing redshifts of different objects and evaluating "Hubble constant", it is possible to see (fig. 1) that for closer objects this “constant” differs more from asymptotic value 73 [km/sMps].

Really for each order of distance there is different value of this parameter. Having taken redshifts from the nearest bright stars VD = 5 [km/s], and having divided it on standard relativistic value of Hibble constant we will receive an absurd value of distance up to the nearest bright stars

R = 5 / 73 = 68493 [ps]

Fig. 1. Relation of Hubble parameter from the order of distance.

Absurdity of the relativistic formulas Z. It is possible to meet some varieties of the formulas linking redshift z to distance R and Doppler velocity VD in the relativistic literature. Analyzing them it is possible to see that if at very small z these formulas are reduced to Hubble - Doppler

VD = cz = HR,

that for large z they result in nonsense.

The direct substitution in Hubble’s formula z > 1 gives superluminal velocity. Usage of "relativistic shrinking" -
(1 – (v/c) 20.5 disagree with the energy conservation law.

Let's analyze definition of redshift

(2)

here λ0, λ - are wavelengths of light in the beginning and at the end of a considered section of path, ν0 and ν – are frequencies of light in the beginning and in the end, h – is Planck constant, E – is an energy of quantum, H – is Hubble constant (factor of dissipation of energy quantum), t - time, R - distance, c – velocity of light.

From here it is possible to show that for holding the energy conservation law in a case of Hubble redshift it is necessary to manipulate with products (z + 1) or with the sums log(z + 1), that is for Hubble distances really connected to fading of light (dissipation of energy of quantum) is necessary to use the formula, not breaking additivity of power loss in somehow segmented length of photon trace.

Ri = c ln(zi + 1) / H, R = S Ri = c ln P (zi + 1) / H.

Even at other nature of redshift (gravitational, K-effect, Doppler effect) it is necessary to hold a conservation law, and to take into account it in the formulas for z.

The myth of a finiteness of lifetime of the observable Universe. Upsetting the principle of a causality and correct logic the relativistic physics tries approve illogical: our Universe (which is all in definition) is finite in Time and Space. It was born in a determined final time moment from anything, having the zero size. Now it expands into "anything" catching more and more vital space from "anything".

At first relativists have customized their theory with value 1/H, and when the astronomical facts have ceased to be stacked in this Procrustean bed, they began to bend not only Space and Time, but also have invented pseudo-evolution of Hubble constant.

Really, for formation not only Universe, but also final astronomical objects, it is necessary times large than 1/H. So, for example, it is easy to count up that for gravitational formation of a Great Attractor (it is gravitational object) many billions years are necessary.

The myth of equivalence of masses. The intrigue is made already in the title of “principle of equivalence", where the word "masses" is skipped. So it is easier mislead by mysterious equivalence on itself. Really, this principle, having a centuries-old history, is connected to discovery of great Galileo Galilei, who found out that the inertia in usual terrestrial conditions is proportional to quantity of substance, that is mass.

Groundless expanding this observation on all Universe, the relativism has got physics into deadlock of masses manifold: rest, longitudinal, transversal …

Really, that is named as inert mass in modern physics, is not a measure of mass, as value of this measure variously for the same quantity of substance depending on motion (and even of an aspect angle of observation in relativism). Actually it is not mass, but inertia. So there was 400 years ago in epoch of Galileo.

The inertia is a measure of interaction of object with aether. It is essential attribute of aether and energy. Any physical waves have inertia, but have no mass. The severe proportion between inertia and energy dE/dr = c2 is established by Nikolai Umov in 1873 [51 - 55]. It is ridiculous to assign this discovery to Einstein, he was not born at that time yet.

Gravitational mass, on the contrary, is inherent only in substance. However it is not equivalent to quantity of substance in all cases. It was shown by Nikolai Kosyrev half century ago in experiment with the gyro [56], and not so long ago in experiment of Eugene Podklötnov. An absence of equivalence of mass has shown especially brightly in Roshin - Godin experiment, in which gravitational mass of the rotated flywheel was reduced by 35 % from a rest-mass [57].

Really, the attitude of gravitational mass to quantity of substance depends on density of a phase aether in substance, more exactly, from deviation of density of aether from its usual equilibrium density in substance.

The myth of gravitational lensing. Since the origin the relativism preaches motion of light on a trajectory of a conic section, forgetting that light has no gravitational mass, and therefore it is not an object of direct gravitational interaction under the formula, which is giving rise conical trajectories

F = g M1M2/R2

For origin of gravitational force both gravitational masses must be non-zero.

Therefore there is a reasonable problem on confidence to experiments on deflection of light near to the Sun. Besides why the astronomers do not see this deviation near other stars (an angle should be same, more than an arc second)?

The cool myth of gravitational lensing uniting everyone engaging by it to cohort of science priests, has no any real physical basis.

The really observable effects of angular deviation of electromagnetic waves not only irrelevant with gravitation, but also have the opposite sign. The experiments on angular deviation of radio waves near to the Sun have shown deviation from the Sun, instead of to it. That corresponds to increase of speed of light near to a surface of celestial body.

Now, for understanding phenomena of redshifts it is necessary to consider properties of aether that is environment, carrier of light.

Structure and parameters of aether

As was found out earlier [30-49] aether is hierarchial structure consisting from corpuscular and phase aethers.

Units of corpuscular aether are spherical particles having radius of the Planck length 1.6·10-35 [m] and inertia numerically equal Planck mass 2.18·10-8 [kg] or that is the same, Planck energy 1.96·109 [J]. Aether is under operation of monstrous pressure 2.1·1081 [Pa]. The massif of particles of corpuscular aether is integrally or statistically still. It represents the main energy of the universe and has density 1.13·10113 [J/m3]. Temperature of corpuscular aether is absolutely constant 2.723 0K. It cannot be changed.

The solar system goes concerning corpuscular aether with Marinov velocity (360± 30 km/s). It is observed as an anisotropy of cosmic microwave background and siderial relation of velocity of light discovered by Prof. St. Marinov in 1974 - 1979 [26, 27]. However, the microwave background is not radiation of corpuscular aether. This is radiation of "superstructure" above corpuscular aether, phase aether.

The phase aether consists from the same particles as corpuscular aether (amers, in Democritus’ nomenclature). The difference is in their phase states. If the corpuscular aether represents a superfluid liquid, similar solid helium, that is actually a kind of quick-sands without any of friction between particles, the array of a phase aether is similar saturated vapor embedded into massif of corpuscular aether.

The main part of phase aether links corpuscular aether in ethereal domains, which linear sizes in 1021 times more than sizes of particles of corpuscular aether. The particles of bound phase aether represent quasi-spherical “string-bags”, in each of which 1 ethereal domain containing ~1063 particles of a corpuscular aether. Domain structure of aether can be illustrated by J.C. Maxwell’s figure (see fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Structure of aether [J.C. Maxwell, 1861]

The ethereal domains are empty bars of elementary particles - electrons, protons, mesons … It seems for modern physicists as virtual particles, which as though are absent and exist in the same time.

On an instant at bombardment of elementary particles we see the particles of phase aether linking them, which physicists consider as quarks, having a fractional charge.

Bound ether is in 1063 times less than corpuscular, but in 1063 times more than weighty substance. Temperature of bound aether is also constant and is in stringent balance with temperature of corpuscular aether. Energy capacity of bound aether ~3·1049 [J/m3] and its density ~3·1032 [kg/m3] also are so great, that its temperature cannot be changed.

However, there is one more variety of aether, free phase aether, freely wandering in Space (on boundaries of ethereal domains, see fig. 2) and collecting in weighty substance in a proportion 5.1·1070 [amer/kg] creating phenomena of gravitation and gravitational mass.

The gravitation is process of phase transition of this variety of aether into corpuscular aether, at which around of substance there is a gradient of pressure of aether. This gradient is force of gravitation.

Being elementary electrical dipoles that is " infringers" of balance of pressure in phase aether (on boundaries of domains, which have not an effect for pressure of a corpuscular aether), amers of a phase aether are a reason of origin of phenomena of polarization (anisotropy of distribution of dipoles), electrical field and charges (deviation of pressure in phase aether in higher or lower side) and electromagnetic field (light).

As power density of free aether 2.54·1017 [J/m3] is not so great, that it could not be changed, and that really in some cases is possible to observe this change as change of velocity of light and redshifts.

Change of temperature of free aether

The free phase aether is the environment - carrier of light determining its speed. The connection between density r of free phase aether and speed of light c is described by the classical formula (1).

According to the gas law

pV/T = p0V0/T0,

where p – is pressure of gas, V – is volume of gas, T – is temperature.

Taking into account, that density is inversely proportional volume, for isobaric process p = constant, which takes place in free aether, we will receive

V/T = V0/T0; V/V0 = T/T0 = n0/n; n = n0T0/T,

where n, T – are density and temperature of free aether in a heated up point, n0, T0 – are density and temperature of free aether far from stars.

As T > T0, always n < n0, that is there is falling density of free aether at heating inside and near to a star.

As it is clarified by the author, the free aether has extremely large internal thermal diffusivity, that is it transmits heat to large distances to other volumes of free aether practically instantly, therefore gradient of temperature is very low.

On the other hand in connection with an extremely large difference of the sizes and inertia of free aether and bound and corpuscular aethers, the transmission of heat to them happens too slowly.

In the same time, as was already marked, temperature of corpuscular and bound phase aether practically is constant in connection with monstrous thermal capacity of aether.

Let's note that temperature of all levels of aether is identical and constant in usual conditions. In connection with a large difference of scales and highest elasticity of aether the temperature of substance and aether do not influence against each other in any way.

Example: the 10 m/s velocity of motion of 0,1 kg stones on in stone crusher, expressed in temperature makes T = mv2/2k = 3.62·1023 0K practically does not influence on temperature of molecules of substance of stones and air in any way, which remains about 300 0K. Even after eternity these temperatures will not equal, as there is dissipation of energy in outside with high speed, characteristic for gas medium.

Other happens at stars inside, where the part of energy of gas medium is transmitted to free aether, and even the small change of its temperature results in change of velocity of light. It also is a reason of K-effect, which we will consider below.

Let's mark, that in this case the additive measure is (z+1), as the proportional temperature of free aether

(3)

where cT – is velocity of light in heated aether.

K-effect

Alive classic of astrophysics Dr. Halton Arp statistically strictly proved that K-effect precisely depends on absolute luminosity of a star [11].

Really, representing heat transmission from weighty substance to aether inside a star as

dE/dVdt = τρT [W/m3]

where ρ – is local density of a star, τ – is coefficient of thermal transmission from substance to aether,

T – is temperature of stellar gas.

It is possible to approve, that the general thermal transmission will be proportional to product of mass of a star M on mean on a volume temperature

By virtue of that the luminosity of stars is a function of their mass M

L ~ M3.6 и L = 4πR2 σT4 [J/s] ~ T4.4, we get P ~ L0,5 ~ T2

As absolute logarithmic M and linear L luminosities are connected on definition

L = 2,512 -M-K, K = const,

(4)

and from (2) it is possible to deduce

z = (cT - co)/co ,

(5)

that taking into account (3), (4) and (5) for intrinsic redshift of a star or galaxy with absolute luminosity M it is possible to write

zint = K·10-M / 5, K = 2.6·10-6

(6)

As the thermal capacity of aether is monstrously great, the formula (6) is suit only for constant sources, and the novae and supernovae have zint = 0.

Having converted z in Doppler velocity it is possible to see, that the formula (6) meets in accuracy to the K-effect fact sheet (see fig. 3), where a line maps it.

Fig. 3. Relation between intrinsic redshift of stars and galaxies and its luminosity.

As agrees (1) and (3) intrinsic redshifts (6) are uniquely connected to density of free aether, the last also is uniquely determined through (6)

n = 1/(zint +1); zint = 1/n - 1

(7)

The relation of refraction factor (optical density) of aether for galaxies of different luminosities is shown in the table 1.

Table 1

Intrinsic redshifts and parameters of aether

in spherical clusters, galaxies and clusters of galaxies

M

zint

n

c [km/s]

Te [0K]

h·10-34 [kgm2/s]

H [km/sMps]

Dark Space

0.0000

1.033

290290

2.637

6.468

73.3

-12.5

0.0008

1.032

290529

2.639

6.462

73.4

-13.5

0.0013

1.031

290668

2.640

6.459

73.5

-14.5

0.0021

1.031

290890

2.642

6.454

73.6

-15.5

0.0033

1.029

291240

2.645

6.446

73.8

-16.5

0.0052

1.027

291796

2.650

6.434

74.1

-17.5

0.0082

1.024

292677

2.658

6.415

74.5

-18.5

0.0130

1.019

294073

2.671

6.384

75.2

-19.5

0.0207

1.012

296285

2.691

6.337

76.4

Milky Way -20.5

0.0327

1.000

299792

2.723

6.263

78.2

-21.5

0.0519

0.982

305350

2.773

6.149

81.1

-22.5

0.0822

0.954

314158

2.853

5.976

85.8

-23.5

0.1303

0.914

328118

2.980

5.722

93.6

-24.5

0.2065

0.856

350242

3.181

5.360

106.7

-25.5

0.3273

0.778

385308

3.500

4.873

129.1

-26.5

0.5188

0.680

440884

4.005

4.258

169.1

-27.5

0.8222

0.567

528965

4.805

3.549

243.4

Virgo –28.5

1.3031

0.448

668564

6.073

2.808

388.8

-29.5

2.0653

0.337

889813

8.082

2.110

688.7

As it is visible from table 1 the speed of light for far from powerful light sources points of Space makes 290290 km/s, and optical density of aether equals n = 1.033.

However, the considered intrinsic redshift does not determine its precise value in each spatial point. That is important for understanding of physical phenomena generated by redshifts, therefore let’s consider this problem.

Temperature disseminating lens in a aether

Considering internal thermal diffusivity of free phase aether on many orders higher than thermal diffusivity between it and bound and corpuscular aether, it is possible to find gradient of temperature depending on distance from center of a heating source and, accordingly, function z from this distance.

For consideration of this problem the main is separation of space into four parts:

It is understandable, that these four zones differ on the sizes on the orders.

The zone of heating for a star is limited to its photosphere, for a galaxy is determined by an external fuzzy edge. As a first approximation it is possible to consider a function zint(R) in this zone parabolic

zint(R) = zint(0)(1 - R2/(Rlum Rdiff))

(8)

where Rlum - is an effective radius of the radiator, R – is distance from center of a source of heating of aether, Rdiff =~ 0.5 Mps.

The formula (8) is fair only for R < Rlum, that is inside the radiator.

The zone of dissipation is characterized by equality of temperature heads for a point source of heat in the three-dimensional isotropic environment and obtained from (1), (2) and (3) relation

cT/co = Te/To = z + 1 = 1/n

(9)

Whence we will receive

zlen(R) ~= zint (Rlum/(Rlum + R)0,5

(10)

The formula (10) can be applied both to a separate star, and to a galaxy. From (6), (7) and (9) a function of refraction of ethereal lens directly follows

n(R) ~= 1 / (zlen(R) + 1)

(11)

The formulas (10) and (11) are suitable only for this zone Rlum < R < Rabs , which is external in relation to luminous object, and they are useful at definition of

The zone of absorption is characterized by excess of process of absorption of heat by corpuscular aether above process of radial dissipation of heat of free aether.

This zone sharply interrupts a temperature flow from a source of heating of aether. It is possible to consider this zone as boundary of influence of a source of heating on parameters of a aether. Due to presence of this zone the temperature of free aether of far Space is stable, and the corpuscular aether by virtue of the monstrous thermal capacity does not change its constant parameters.

In a figure 4 the computational distribution of intrinsic redshift near to Milky Way is shown. It coincides with statistics of the observational data of distribution of "radial velocities" of stars in Milky Way discovered by Paul Merrill [58]. Of course, there is no any "radial velocity" in Nature. This is internal redshifts of our Galaxy.

Fig. 4. A function of intrinsic redshift of Milky Way and actual redshifts of stars

Let's mark that for Space inside the considered zones it is necessary to enter concept of proper redshift of Space point zprop. As against intrinsic redshift of single source (8) and (10) this value is the sum of influences of all heat sources (nearby galaxies) in zones of heating of which the given point enters. In a case of taking into account these influences we will get exact values of redshifts and we can precisely calculate its action in different physical phenomena.

Applying the formula (11) to the analysis of distribution of galaxies obtained in the 2dF project, it is possible to see as the radial voids in distribution of galaxies located on directions of the absolutely bright galaxies and galactic clusters, nearby to the Earth. On all visibility it is testify about non-gravitational disseminating lensing of aether in close to Milky Way galaxies and galactic clusters (see fig. 5). The Earth is not center of the Universe and given phenomenon, as well as many others, similar to it, can be only observant - apparent. Nikolai Copernicus has proved it still in 16-th century.

Fig. 5. Distribution of galaxies obtained in the 2dF project. The radial voids, which have been not filled by galaxies are clearly visible [60].

Dissipation of energy of light quanta in aether

The offered concept allows to give the strong physical basis to a hypothesis of tired light, which originally was put forward by Fritz Zwicky in 1929 and implied braking photons in gravitational field of galaxies.

As it becomes clear now the reason is not in gravitational force, but in loss of energy of a photon in interaction with free aether, environment of propagation of light. As well as any physical environment, aether has property of absorption. Reasonably to assume that this absorption is proportional to disturbing thermal motion of free aether. The losses on dissipation here can be defined in the same way as in other physical environments. Thus we will receive parameter similar to absorption coefficient.

H = H0(T / T0)2, H0 = 73,3 [km/sMps]

where H0 – is Hubble constant at T0.

In the table 1 the values H for central zones of Space objects are shown. It is visible that light coming from objects located behind of large galactic clusters should have high redshift at the reason of a boosted dissipation of energy of photons at passing a "warm" aether of clusters. Thus distances, computed using Hubble-Doppler shift, will give spatial distortion of a cluster, as it takes place in Virgo cluster (see fig. 6).

Fig. 6. A distortion of a cluster Virgo and others in a direction from the Earth [61]

Here is pertinent to recollect Copernicus’ struggle with geocentrism of Ptolemean apologists.

Precision of type Ia supernovae

Outgoing from the supposition, that type Ia supernova is a nuclear explosion of supercompressed meta-solid core of the star which has slowly reached critical mass, the author has come to a conclusion that with other things being equal the yields of Ia explosions should be precisely identical.

Taking into account, that visible redshift, on which distance up to supernova is determined is composition of Hubble redshift (normal dissipation), intrinsic redshift of host galaxy and redshift of thermal forced dissipation, the author has collected the data about 164 pairs of supernova - galaxy, which luminosities and redshifts are precisely known.

Besides there was taken into consideration that critical mass of nuclear explosion and, therefore, absolute peak luminosity of supernovae Ia depends on local speed of light, being increased in galaxies of the greater absolute luminosity.

It is explained by reduction of Planck constant at increase of temperature of free aether

ht = h0nt = h0(T0/Te) = h0 / (zint + 1).

The study has shown, that the absolute luminosity of supernova Ia is a function zint and it is stacked in regression line

MIa = -17.78 (zint + 1)

(12)

Using correction zint up to zprop, that is taking into account influence of nearby galaxies it is possible to lower a dispersion in definition MIa, however it needs refinement of volumetric Space maps. As a first approximation author used characteristic radius Rabs / 2 = 4.2 Mps and formula (10).

In a figure 7 the distribution of MIa from zint and regression line of this distribution conterminous with (11) is shown. Under the shape of distribution it is possible to assume that dispersion of supernovae luminosities in smaller galaxies is determined by influence of large nearby galaxies, so zint differs from zprop for smaller galaxies more strongly (see dotted lines limiting distribution of supernovae).

Fig. 7. Distributions of supernovae luminosities MIa (violet punches) and luminosities of their hosts - galaxies (light-blue punches) from zint

Maximum size of thermal zone

The question arising within the framework of proposed concept consists in maximum size of thermal zone, in which we inhere. With the assumption that the asymptotic value of Hubble constant is 73 km/sMps for distant galaxies, resting in results of classical measurements, shown in fig. 1, it is possible to get size of thermal zone by subtraction 73 km/sMps from data in fig. 1 (see fig. 8). It is about Rlum = 100 Mps that is to say the size of lateral face of local metagalactic cell, which is a most large source of heat adjacent by its two sides with great dark area of metagalactic cell filled by antimatter according to proposed concept of gravitation [47].

Fig. 8. Radius of thermal zone (increased value of Hubble parameter).

The author has revealed that applying the formula (10, Rlum = 100 Mps) to distribution of luminosities more than 4000 galaxies from the UGC cataloque [62] and photometry of galaxies with high redshift [63] it is possible to show independence of statistical distribution of luminosities of galaxies from distance up to the Earth (see fig. 9 a, b and 10 a, b). The red line in figures outlines top of distribution, the green line marks median.

Fig. 9 a. Distributions of luminosities of short-range (light-blue punches) + distant (violet) galaxies from [62] and [63] in a scale 3000 Mps

Fig. 9 b. Distributions of luminosities of short-range (light-blue punches) + distant (violet) galaxies from [62] and [63] in a scale 300 Mps

Fig. 10 a. Distributions of luminosities of the same galaxies after application formula (10) to z correction. (scale 3000 Mps)

Fig. 10 b. Distributions of luminosities of the same galaxies after application formula (10) to z correction. (scale 300 Mps)

Conclusions

Application of aethereal approach developing by the author to a problem of redshifts has clarified following:

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to Dr. Halton Arp (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Germany), who’s works have inspired on the present study. Also the author is grateful to physicists participants of a scientific forum of Dr. Arp http://www.haltonarp.com/ Ari Jokimäki (Finland) and Lyndon Ashmore (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) for participation in discussion on this problem, and also to Prof. Alexey A. Potapov (Institute of Dynamics of Systems and Theory of Control of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia), Nikolay Noskov (National Nuclear Center, Kazakhstan) and Prof. Friedwardt Winterberg (University of Nevada, USA) for scientific and moral support of this study.

Karim Khaidarov
Almaty, August 1, 2005.

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