1. , cosφ

u , dq, dA = udq. , i = dq/dt. dA = ui dt, , , ..

,

(1)

u i - .

, (1), , . , T , , , ..

image227.gif.

(2)

u=Umsinw t Imsin(wt-φ ),

image228.gif

(3)

.. . cosφ .

, cosφ

, I U, φ . UI. 90 . , , - . , .. φ , . - ..

" cosφ" , cosφ .

(3) I U

P = UI cosφ = U(I cosφ) = UI = I(U cosφ) = IU .

(4)

, I=U/R U=IR , (4)

P = I2R = U2/R .

(5)

P [].

(3)

image229.gif

(6)

, UIcosφ .

cosφ = 1 (φ = 0) , .. ,

image230.gif

(7)

, . 1 ).

sac_8_2.gif

. , .

cosφ = 0 (φ = p/2) , ..

image231.gif

(8)

, . 1 ) ). (8) , , . , (p > 0) , (p < 0) . , , .

1 > cosφ > 0 ( 1< |φ | < p/2)

image232.gif

(8)

. 1 ), (p > 0), , . p , P . , .

rLC (. 2). u=ur+uL+uC .

sac_8_1.gif

ui=uri+uLi+uCi

(9)

u=Umsinwt Imsin(wt-φ ). ur= rImsin(wt-φ ), uL= w LImsin(wt-φ +p /2) = xLImsin(wt-φ +p /2), uC= Imsin(wt-φ -p /2)/(w C) = xCImsin(wt-φ -p /2). (9),

image233.gif

(10)

(10) . . P = UIcosφ. , Q = UIsinφ . . , . , .. .

Q = UI sinφ = U(I sinφ ) = UI = I(U sinφ ) = IU .

(11)

, φ > 0 φ < 0 .

(10) P, Q S = UI

image234.gif

(12)

S . (12) , φ , .

, , .. , (cosφ = 0). .

,

P = UI = I2R = UI = U2/R = U2G ;

Q = UI = I2X = UI = U2/X = U2B ;

S = UI = I2Z = U2/Z = U2Y.

(13)

image235.gif,

(14)

S - , image236.gif- .

sac_8_3.gif

( (4) (11)), (. 3 ) )). U (. 3 )). (. 3 )), I.

, , , [], , - [], - - []

sac_8_4.gif

P = UIcosj , .

. 4

,

W, V A - , . j .

, , , . , p(t), - (t) i(t) :

p(t) = (t) i(t).

p(t) (. 2.7).

. 2.7.

T - ( , ) T - p(t) (t) i(t):

.

p(t) ( ) ? ( - ) . 2.8.

. 2.8. : - ? = 0; -? = 60; - ? = 90.

? ( - ) -, Q (. . 2.8, ). ?, - - , - . , - ( ? = 90), (. 2.8, ) = 0, - Q - .

(t). -, ( () (. 2.9, ), , , , . 2.9, .

. 2.3.

, , w(t) (. . 2.9, ). , (t), Dti -, W, (t5:t1), (i ?Dti ) (. . 2.9, ):

.

, (t) -, W, (t1:t0),
:

.


( 20 )

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, . tired light - , , , 1926 .
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, . , . . FAQ .


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