.

. , () .

- , , .. () I (.  2).

, .

, , , , .

- , , .. () U (. 2).

, , - .

.

, . , , , . . (P=UI) , .

/ , , , , . 1

U , Imax , . .

, , , .

 

() , . 2.

. , - .

U-I. , I = - Ug = -U/r U = -Ir , r - U , g = 1/r - . I = - Ug

I = -Ug + I = I - Ug = J - Ug

(1)

U = -Ir .

U = -Ir + U = U - Ir = E - Ir

(2)

(1) (2) I U , J E , .. . (1) (2) . 3 ) ).

 

(1) (2) . 3 , , . 2. .

r g .

(1) (2) , I J Ug, g. , U Ir r. , r, .

r 0 , , g = 1/r , J = E/r . , . g 0.

, , , , ) . 3 . 3 ) . , ( ) .

  1

) ) :

E = Jg ; r = 1/g ; J = E/r ; g = 1/r

2

, .. ( , ).

1 2 2. . 3 :

)

(3)

  ) .

(4)

3

(3) (4)  , , / . :

  1. U , I U, ;
  2. I, I U, ;
  3. U I.

(3) (4) , I =0, U =0, 1:

1.

.

U , U, I

I , U, I

U , I

. 3 )

J = U I/(U -U)

g = I/(U -U)

J = I

g = (I -I)/ U

J = I

g = I/ U

. 3 )

E = U

r = (U -U)/ I

E = IU/(I -I)

g = (I -I)/ U

E = U

r = U / I

4

. , , U, , U/2. I , , I/2. r R.

. 4. R , .. U = E =2U . , U = E - Ir.

r = (E - U)/I = (2U - U)/I = U /I = R .

, .. I = J =2I I = J - Ug .

g = (J - I)/U = (2I - I)/U = I /U = G

, , .

5

, . . .

, . 5, , A B. , IB=I- IA=D I UA=U- UB=D U , .. A B, B A.

, U I -

D I = d I I ; D U = d U U .

(5)

A B

UA = d U U ; IA = I - d I I = I(1 - d I) ;

UB = U - d U U = U(1 - d U); IB = d I I .

(6)

,

r - . (5)

,

d U = d I = d (6)

(7)

.

(8)

(7) m - , d - . (8) l - , d - .

, d , (l = 1/m ). m , - l .

d (l) d (m) (. 6) , R > 20r 5%. , 20R < r .

 

2.

E = const

r = 0

g=

J = const

r =

g = 0

E = U = J/g

J = I = E/r

r = -ctga = E/J = 1/g

g = -tga = J/E = 1/r


( 20 )

, , .

" " , -, , , "", -, " " - , "-", , , , .

" ", , "" , ( , , , - ), 100% , "-" "", " ". FAQ .


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