.

, , , , .

- , , .

, .

, , :
- U, ;
- I, ;
- , ;
- n, / ( 1/c);
- h ;
- U, ;
- I ( ),
- J, 2,
- IP.

.

- ( , ) , .

- - , , , .

- , , ( = 0, w = w 0) ( = w = w ). ( ) , = kI, .. k. (4) , :

                ;                 (13)

R - , , , .

R, . ( - ) , , D - :

                0,5 D I2R,

            .         (14)

,

                = kI,

               

D , .

R .

, , .

.

, U, I, w , , :

               

                ,

                .

, U* * = 1, :

                w * = 1 - I*R*

I* = 1 ( )

                w * = 1 - R*.                     (15)

R , , R, .

, : R*= 0,02 - 0,05, (R = R) :

                b = (-50) - (-20).

() .

. .

, , , . ( ) , , , , , . - - 2-3 - .

20-30% ; , , 3-4 - .

- , . - . 12. , , 30-40% - . 12 . () ; (2-3)I - . 12. ( ) .

. 12.

, .

, , . 12 : , - () .


( 20 )

, , gedanken experiment?
, , , . . . , , " " , , , , . , " " "" - .
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