, , , , .. , , .

.

-,

- - , , .. - . 21,.

 

a) )

. 21. () ()

,

(. 20,) - , = g w U, U - g w ( ). , . . 1 (. 21,) 2. 2, .

                U = U - g w ,                     (21)

, , 2 , 2>1 2. , U, . , , .

. (20) (21) :

                .         (22)

, :

                ,

.

, :

                ,

.

 

- .

, , .. - , . , , . , ( = const), . . - . 22,.

 

) )

. 22. () ()

I < I , (IR < U). , ..

                U = U - a I,

. U - . 22,, U - .

-

(I=const) , , , .. . : . . . 23, , ; , . , (U) U(U) , :

                = U,

 

) )

. 23. () () ,

, ,

                U = U - U = U - g w .

, :

                ,                     (23)

.. (. 23,), .

R - - . 24,,

            ,

 

) )

. 24. () () ,

, , :

                .

, - . 24,, .. , .

.

, - -, .. , .

, , , .


( 20 )

, , , - , , , , -, 2.7º. , (CMB) , 2.7ºK. . . , () . 1933 . . 2.8ºK - . FAQ .


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