() . 1.30. . , D1.1 . "1" ( D1.2 . "0"), 1 . D1.1 , U=0,5U , D1.1 . "", D1.2 "1". () . 1 Unop . . R2 , 1 , , R1 R2 (R2<0,01R1). (R2) . 1 (t) (t) : t=to=0,7R1C1. T=1,4R1C1. R1 1 20 0...10 ; 300 ...100 .

(. 1.30) 5612 ( ) U+Unop. -
t=1,1R1C1, to=0,5R1C1, T=1,6R1C1.


. 1.30.

1.31.

. 1.32.

, , R2 VD1, . 1.. R2 (t=to) .

. 1.31 : t=0,8C1R1, to=0,8C1R2. , , 0,1 , 1 .

, (. 1.32). 1 U+Unop, t=1,1C1R2.

T=1,8C1R2.

. 1.33 , . . 1.34.

, , . 1.35.
D1.1 , D1.2 ( R5) D1 1
D1 1


133
) )


1 34


1 35

D1.2. R2/R1 R3/R5 D1.1 D1.2 , F=1/R5C1 ( , . 1.30)

RS-, 1.36. 1.31 R1 R2


1.36
) RS , )
,
) , ) RS

, . , . , R1 R2 , R1 R2 .

RS-, . 1.36.


. 1.37


. 1 38.

, . 1 37 , . 1.38. .

. 1.39. , R1=R2, R3=R4, 1=2, =1,4RC.

561, . 1.40. . 1 ,


1 39

R1 R2. R1>R2, R2 D1.2, , , 0. D1/12 . D1.1, 11 10, D1.2. -
1 "+" . , , , D1/12 , U , D1.1. 1 , C1R1R3/(R1+R3), , R1, R3. -
1 D1.1. .


. 1.40.


. 1.41.

D1.2 . R1 R2 .

t2 R1, R1 t1. -
, , , R3. , t1/t2
, 1.

, , ( 561-
35% U 3 15 ), .


. 1.42.

, RC- 1% 15 ( ). -
, . . 1.41 1.42 . -
10...100 . .


( 20 )

, 1990- CMB ( ), 1974. , . FAQ .


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