Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann von Helmholtz

(. Hermann von Helmholtz; 31 1821, 8 1894, ) : , .

. - . , 1843 , . 1848 . 1849 ʣ, . 1855 , 1858 . 1870 .

1871 . 1888 - .

. (1847) , 1842 , . 1881 , (F = U - TS, U , S , T ).

1842 1852 . . , , , . .

, 1850 , 1851 . . , . . . . .

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. . , 1875 ( .. ).

. . .-. -. 2 (1892). . 3-4.

. . ., 1895.

. . .-.: , 1934.

. , . // . .: , 1956. . 366382.

. . .: , 2002.

   


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, 1974 - 1980 . , , , , 360±30 /, - . , "Deutsche Physik", . FAQ .





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