() , .

, (. 9).


                                               

.9. : - ; / ()

U. U = 0 I = 0 B . , , U U , . . , E. I .

U, I , , , . U , .. , I .

:

  1. , ,
  2. P = I U .

    I, P .

  3. P = I U . U , P .
  4. .

, t , i(t) U(t) .

, i(t) , .. i(t)=I t/t , , , R, E ,

.

 

f, , ,

,

.

, , P. .

. 10.

(. 9) , U , U , . , , , , , .

. 10.

:

.

R - , , (. 11).

. 11. -

. 2 . 2 .

R , , .

() - (. 12).

. 12. -

1 2 , . : , .

0 (U 0 ) 1 , 2 + , 1. , 1 .

1, 1 U 0 , 0. 2.

, .

. - , .

(- , )

(. 12.), I0 U . U.


                                               

. 13. : ;

U () () .

, U 1 2

() . . U = U + d , 1 , Ud 1 = U U > 0, 2 (Ud 2 = U U < 0). , U1 , U2 .

(), . . U = U d , 2, 1 . d = 0,1 0,5 , .

, .


( 20 )

, c " - , . (, ), ( ). ." ( - )
, - , ( ). - 1011 . . , , .
. , , , . , , CMB ( ) . FAQ .


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