( ) - . X. 1834 , . (. Faraday) 1831. , () . , , i . . . . (F. Neumann) 1846 . .-. :

= + i - . S, . . .

[.: . ., , 9 ., ., 1976: . X., . , ., 1950.]

1831 , , . .

, . , , , , . , , , . , , . , , . , , , .

. . , . , , , , , ( , ). , , , 10-15 , , . 500 /, .


, " " - , . , , .
, , . , " " " ", , . FAQ .

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