1. ,

, . . , , .

. , , , .

. . . , , . , , . .1.




.1 - () ()


, , , . - .




.2 - () ()



, .. . , (.2 ). , , , . , , .

, , (.2 ). , , , . , , .2 , , .

, .. , . , , , 0,5 .



.3 - .


.2 , , , , .3 . , , . , . .

. (.2 ) , . (.2 ) , , , .



.4 -


, . . (.4 ). (.4 ), . (.4 ) , , , , . . , , , . , . , , .4 .

- , , - , . , .4 , . , , .




.5 -



.5 , 1/2 () , ( ). , ( .5 ), , .

, - . . , 1. , , 1/2 (), 180. , , . . . 0 180 , = 21.



.6 - 1 2


. , . .6. , 1/4 () , 1 90 2.

2 , 1/4 () 90 2. , 90 1, , , ( = 21). () 1 90 2 , 1/4 (), 90.

, 180 , 2, , .. ( =0). 90, 1,4 1.

, , , , , ( .6 ). , 2 , 1. 1 , 2 , .

, , . . , , .

, . 1/4 (), 90. , , 90 . - , , , ( ) ; 90. 270, 90. . , .

, , , , , 90. , .7 ( ). , . .




.7 -



. 2 (.6) , 1 ( ) , , .7. 2 , 1 , .

- . 1/4 (), 90. 90, , , 90, ( , 1/4 ()). 90 , , .7. .

- ( , , . .), . . , .




.8 -


, , . - , (.8 ). , , , . .

, , h = (.8 6). , . . , .

, , , , ( ) , , . . , ; , 180 .

, . . ,
h >> . , , .



.9 -


, . , . (.9). , .


( 20 )

, , , , ? FAQ .


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