1. ,

( ), , .

. , , () (.1 ).

.1 -

, . (I = 0), , , (.1 ).

.

, (.2). , .



.2 -


. . , (.3). , , , .




.3 -


, , . , , , .

, , . () d. , , ()/d = 40, L = 0,47(), ()/d = 1000 0,485 (). , , . , , 1030 .




.4 -


. , , , , .. .4. (.4 ), ( ), 80 . ,, L . 510% .


(.4 ). . Z ( 1/2() ), .

(.4 ), . (.4 ), 90 180 . , . (.4 ), . . .. . -, , -.

, . , , . , 1/4() . , , .




.5 - 16 ( )


. .5 16 , , . , , . 180 , , 1/2().

, , , . , . . .

, . , Zo = 70-80 , .. Z (.5 ) . , , .


(.5 ), , Z=80 . , Z = Zo. , .5 , .

(.5 ) . ( -). 20 Z .

-, . . , , (.6). , .



.6 - ..


, , , , 320 . Zx , b/d = 6-8. , .




.7 -


(.7), (.8), , .



.8 -


, . , . ( ) . 0,1λ 0,25λ. , .7 8, , .

(), . . 1929 . , .

, . , , , 1,64. , , , .

, 5. .

,

, .
, .

1. , (.9).



.9 -


, Zo, R Zo. , , . . ,



Zo .

Ζ, Z = Zo. ( ) , ( ). Ζ



, Ζο = 320 , Ζ , 80 , Ζοτ=160 . .9, .



, , .



, , .



, 80 320 = 1. = 0,25.

, b d , b/d Z. Z .

2. U- . U- .10. , . U- ( ).



.10 - U-


() U- .

, U- , 180 , U-



λ , a ε , . , , = 2,3 L = 1/3 λ.

, . , Zo, 4Zo. Z8 4 Zo. , 80 U- , Ζ = 320 . Ζ 4Zo, U- ( ) .


( 20 )

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