1. .
  2. -

, -

- , , ().
- , , , .
.

  1. - [Ohmm], , , . , - , .
  2. - ( ) [Ohmm]/ ( ) [Ohm], , , . , , - ( ). , , . . , .

, .

  1. , - - . (. - , )
  2. - - . (. )

. (2R): 50 < 2,8 400 < 1, 40 < 0,1. , ()

- , , , , 10-7 . , , , , , (, ).

, , ρ.

ρ :

ρ = 2/.

: 1 ( ), 1 2, 20 .

ρ
















( , )
( , )
( , )


( , , )


0,015
0,0175
0,023
0,025... 0,108
0,028
0,047
0,0474
0,05
0,054
0,059
0,087
0,095... 0,1
0,1
0,103... 0,137
0,12
0,22
0,42
0,43... 0,51
0,5
0,6
0,94
1,05... 1,4
1,15... 1,35
1,2
1,3... 1,5

, 1 1 2 0,13 . 1 7,7 . . 1 , 62,5 1 2. - , . : 1 1 2 0,0175 . 1 , 57 .

, , , , . .

:

r - ; ρ - ; l - ; S - 2.

1. 200 5 2.

2. 2 2,5 2.

, .

3. 30 0,21 2. .

4. 20 , 25 .

5. 0,5 2 40 16 . .

.

, .

, . . . . , . , .

100 40 - 50 %. , . . , ( ), , , .

. , . , , , .

- , 1 1 , α.

t0 r0, t rt,

. ( 200C).

α ( 2).

2

α

α





0,0035
0,0040
0,0066
0,0045
0,0032




0,0090
0,0003
0,000005
0,00016
0,00005

rt:

rt = r0 [1 + α (t - t0)].

6. , 200C, 0C 100 .

rt = r0 [1 + α (t - t0)] = 100 (1 + 0,0066 α 200) = 232 .

7. , , 15C 20 . . 29,6 . .

, . . , (), , .

, , , , , , , . .

, , 5, 1/5 , , , 1/7, 7. , r, 1/r. g.

(1/) .

8. 20 . .

r = 20 ,

9. 0,1 (1/). ,

g = 0,1 (1/), r = 1 / 0,1 = 10 ()

( , 10-20 () ).

, , :

  1. ;
  2. ;
  3. ;
  4. : , , ;
  5. .

. , , .

1 0. 1 99.9% Cu, (0.1%) 0,08%. . 0, 0.05% , 0.02% .

, , .

, , , , , , . , , , .

. : 2.6, - 2.7 /3. .., 3.5 . , , . , , , .

- , . 1.63 , . , , .

, 0.5% , 1. 00 ( 0.03% ) , . 0000 0004%. Ni, Si, Zn Fe 0.5% γ , 2-3%. Cu, Ag Mg, γ 5-10%. Ti Mn.

. .

. , 0.3-0.5% Mg, 0.4-0.7% Si 0.2-0.3% Fe. Mg2Si, .

() , , . ; ρ , .. , . : , , ; . . .

. , , .

. NaCl . , 2.8 ρ 1.7 ρ , ( 9 ), , . ( , ), . , .

  1. . ., " " – 9- , – : , 1964 – 560.
  2. . ., . ., . . , . . .: , 1971.
  3. . . // : 86 . (82 . 4 .). ., 18901907.
  4. . , . . // . 1986. . 08. . 5054, 2-3 . .
             

( 20 )

, , , - , , , , -, 2.7º. , (CMB) , 2.7ºK. . . , () . 1933 . . 2.8ºK - . FAQ .


 01.10.2019 - 05:20: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> - _.
30.09.2019 - 12:51: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> - _.
30.09.2019 - 11:53: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> - _.
29.09.2019 - 19:30: - Conscience -> - _.
29.09.2019 - 09:21: - Economy and Finances -> - _.
29.09.2019 - 07:41: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> - _.
26.09.2019 - 17:35: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> - _.
26.09.2019 - 16:35: , - War, Politics and Science -> - _.
26.09.2019 - 08:33: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> .. - _.
26.09.2019 - 06:29: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> .. - _.
24.09.2019 - 03:34: - Theorizing and Mathematical Design -> - - _.
24.09.2019 - 03:32: - New Technologies -> "" "" - _.
Bourabai Research Institution home page

   - Bourabai Research Bourabai Research Institution