main page   list of papers   library  

© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, November 12, 2007

ON ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES VELOCITY

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

Abstract. The reasons of contortion of notion about the nature of electromagnetic waves in modern physics are considered. The explanation of observed facts from the point of view of aethereal physics is given. Author's experiment showing the variability of electromagnetic waves velocity in aether is described.

..."His truth shall be thy shield and buckler."
[Psalm 91,4]

Unfortunately, since 1905, when in physics relativism became reigning, and physicists came to believe in its postulates, the whole century theoretical physics went by wrong way. Negating presence of the physical carrier of electromagnetic waves, and postulating limitпess, constancy and independence of light velocity, the relativists carefully veiled or completely excluded from consideration the facts contradicting to postulates of relativism. In result there was an inhibiting the development of all directions of physics and new technologies, which are not stacked in Procrustean bed of relativism.

However, the physical reality overpunches the way to itself by means of the new and new facts, physical phenomena and success of technologies skipping unjustified postulates of relativism. Final descreditation of relativistic myths will promote the liberation of mind of the researchers and engineers from those obstacles, which prevent them in creation of new technologies and in cognition of the nature. This purpose is the reason of present paper, which offers not only criticism of relativistic postulates and relativistic interpretation of physical phenomena, but also simple experiment on refutation of the main postulate of relativism, the constancy of speed of light in free space.

Relativistic myths about electromagnetic waves

The myth of absence of the carrier of electromagnetic waves was arisen from feeble possession of logic and ignorance of physics.

The historically first occasion of occurrence of a myth of “groundlessness” of electromagnetic waves were Albert Michelson's incorrectly put experiment on detection of aether, and illogical conclusion from it [1].

The incorrectness of Michelson's experiment consists as a minimum in following.

1. In this experiment the variability of an interference figure (shift of vertical fringes) created by standing electromagnetic wave in fixed concerning laboratory installation (interferometer) was measured. As the installation was fixed concerning laboratory, so it was fixed concerning the substance surrounding the installation, so it was fixed concerning the carrier of this substance, the aether. Thence the expectation of any changes would be illogically.

2. If to guess that the aether (one of its component) goes irrespective of substance of laboratory and the Earth, it would be necessary to view this component as the carrier of electromagnetic field. However in last guess also there is not enough of logic as various electromagnetic phenomena, such as an induction, have laboratory as the null point.

Further, under influence of Michelson's conclusion in minds of the scientists, especial ly those who is declined to speculative mathematical constructions, the idea on construction of physics without aether that is without the physical carrier of fields has ripened.

The matter of fact, any physical wave (sound, marine waves, seismic waves, wave of heat and others) is a turbulence of physical environment, and without last the concept of the wave loses its physical and logical senses. When mathematicians abstract from physical field (environment), which distribution are the wave functions, they receive only insulated fragment of process or phenomena, which have been not made in a correct logic field, so the ambiguous speculative constructions of any arbitrary sense become possible. To understand it, it is enough to set to the question: what kind of physical matter the distribution of considered function is? If it is the distribution of “anything”, it is “anything” also, that is physically nonexistent object incorrectly constructed in a brain. Thus, being the distribution of “anything” in “anything” the relativistic electromagnetic wave is not object of physics.

Further, the “author” of SRT A. Einstein and other relativists, for example Paul Dirac, have made attempt to leave physical empty space by turning to models of “semiether”, “physical vacuum” filled with the "sea of virtual particles". However such course is wrong scientifically and logically. If the space is not empty, there is no place to any kind of relativism. If relativism is true, there is no place to any kind of “physical vacuum”.

The myth of the constancy of speed of light in free space has appeared in minds of physical mathematicians H. Lorentz [3], H. Poincare [4], A. Einstein [5] trying to explain Michelson's experiment from relativistic position and developing idea about electromagnetic waves propagation in vacuo, the completely empty space. However, probably all of them do not know about the physical fact discovered in the same 1887 by Russian astrophysicist Ari Belopolski [6]. Already known in that time, the founder of astrospectroscopy А. Belopolski has discovered that the spectrum of light is shifted close of absolutely bright stars that can mean only one, the velocity of electromagnetic wave varies from properties of physical environment. From the fundamentals of classical physics we know that the velocity of physical wave is determined by elasticity and inertia of environment, as it is a turbulence of that environment.

Would be natural to assume that near to bright stars the temperature of this environment (aether) varies that changes its density [15]. However, having decided that “the nature loves simplicity” (Henri Poincare) relativists skipped and ignore now Belopolski's discovery, considering that “if the fact does not meet to the theory, that is worse for the fact” (A. Einstein).

The myth about interstellar plasma has arisen as attempt to coordinate with relativism found out more than 30 years ago the phenomenon of interstellar dispersion of electromagnetic waves, when the difference in the moment of arrival of light and radio pulses of pulsars was found. It is clear that having a broad spectrum of radiation, from a roentgen up to radio the initial pulse of pulsar radiation undergoes “unmixing”, the time dispersion in connection with a different velocities of high-frequency and low-frequency waves.

Relativists could not recognize the dispersion as attribute of environment, the carrier of waves. It would mean crash of the theory of relativity. In this connection the myth about existence of hot plasma uniformly dispelled in space was composed.

The myth about space plasma is unacceptable for the following reasons:

- It is impossible termodynamically the long-lived existence of hot overrarefied plasma in cold space. Such plasma should fast cool down up to 3°K for account of radiation into cold space.

- If the plasma is formed because of the efflux from celestial bodies, it should be torn and it must cause modulation of time dispersion value, but it is not observed. Only scintillation of light of pulsars and sporadic modulation of signal amplitude are observed that can explained by presence of interstellar dust.

Aether, the environment and carrier of electromagnetic waves

The aether, as well as other physical environments, has density, viscosity, absorption, permittivity (8.854·10-12 F/m), permeability (1.257·10-6 H/m), wave impedance (377 Ohm), temperature (2.72ºK).

Considering a question on density of aether superficially, guided habitual prejudices, it is not necessary to sneer about density of aether, 2.818 [kg/m3], discovered by the author [7].

Actually, it is not gravitational density, as at substance, but it is inertial density, as at physical fields, including light. It is exact in sense, as Nikolay Umov [8-12] understood this density and its connection with energy and speed of light c long before 20-th century hoaxes:

dE/dρ = c2 [m2/s2],

As well as the usual material, aether has property of temperature, which is equal 2.72ºK (it is found by Prof. Erich Regener in 1933 [13], but not by Penzias and Wilson in 1964).

Accordingly, the ether has Planckean emission spectrum of a black body.

The absorption of energy of light quanta by aether is determined by process of relaxation, excitation of forced oscillations of its units, the amers by electromagnetic wave passing through this environment.

The temporal damping factor is visible on intergalactic distances. It is Hubble constant

δ = H = 2.36·10-18 [1/s]; γ = H/c = 7.888·10-27 [1/m]

(1)

where H - is Hubble constant [1/s], і - is spatial (linear) damping factor [1/m]; c - is speed of light [m/s].

On the other hand as free phase (electromagnetic) aether is gaseous environment, it is possible to express the damping factor of wave oscillations in it as [9]

(2)

where η is kinematic viscosity of environment; c is wave propagation velocity; ω is wave cyclical frequency.

From (1), (2) and formulas deduced in [14] it is possible to see that the viscosity of aether for high frequency is a function of frequency of electromagnetic wave

(2)

The property (3) provides the appearing absence of dispersion of empty space in infrared, optical and ultraviolet ranges. The reduction of viscosity with frequency increase is completely compensated by the same increase of cycles of dissipation of quantum energy, and the dispersion of optical waves in aether does not apparent. It makes ethereous environment “invisible” in optical band. It gives birth to relativistic mythology.

However on lower frequency, which is the radio range, the dispersion of aether is visible that is expressed in an interstellar dispersion.

In connection with reduction the effective area of a quantum with square of frequency, the level of dissipation of energy is proportional to the second degree of difference of wave frequency and aether heat frequency. The relations of these two factors to wave frequency are shown in figure 1.

Fig. 1. Relations of Rayleigh scattering components of electromagnetic waves on aether from their frequency
(1 - is Planckean spectrum of emission/absorption of aether; 2 - is change of dielectric susceptibility of aether; 3 - is viscosity of aether; 4 - is final relation (wave absorption in aether); 5 - is optical band)

The absorption factor of aether as a function of frequency that is dielectric loss will be determined by product of its viscosity on dielectric susceptibility as well as at any other dielectric environment

δ =α χ ν; α = const.

Figure 1 clearly demonstrates that lower than temperatures (or frequency) of aether Ta, fa the propagation of electromagnetic waves in aether is analog of usual sound waves, for which the aether has constant viscosity (factor of internal friction). Above frequency fa the electromagnetic waves are analog of hypersound and the viscosity of aether decreases with frequency.

Also, as phonons with energy hf for hypersound, the determining role for electromagnetic waves in aether with f > fa quanta with energy hf are playing.

According to the Kirchhoff's Law, as it is visible in figure 1, the Planckean blackbody emission and the absorption of aether should result in to absorption of electromagnetic waves close to 3·1011 Hz (λ = 1 mm) on “cosmogonic” distances. The optical thickness D of aether is D = c/H = 13.4·109 years. That is all optically observed space is thin surface layer of all actual Universe.

Interstellar dispersion of electromagnetic waves in aether

As well as any physical environment, the aether responds to external effect, changing its parameters. However in connection with unique values of parameters of aether this response is extremely small. Said concerns to dielectric permittivity of aether, which in modern physics is accepted as a constant. Actually ε of aether is changing under activity of electrical field, so the change of optical density of environment expressed through a dielectric susceptibility of environment is possible to define as function of electric intensity created by electromagnetic wave that is the dielectric susceptibility of an ether χ(ω) as a function of wave frequency is [14]

(4)

where P - is polarization of environment (electrical dipole moment of a unit volume independent of frequency); E(ω) - is electric intensity.

The unbiassed and attentive analysis of the data on the interstellar dispersion shows, that its behaviour is described by the regularity (4) found by the author, and the observed deviations from linear relation of dispersion measure (DM) of some pulsars are determined by parameters of a cloud of substance being in process dissipation after supernova explosion.

As the author has shown the dispersing influence of substance (cold electrons) dispelled by supernova on the dispersion of radio waves satisfactorily described by the formula

Kform = exp(-t/Tscat) (1 - exp(-t/Tform)

(5)

where Tscat - is dissipation time constant of a cloud of substance; Tform - is time constant of formation of a cloud.

The author found out mean values for parameters in (5): Tscat = 1.2 million years, Tform = 5900 years. The experimental datas are inscribed in this model with correlation factor 0.9985. Figure 2 from [14] and table of actual values of frequency - time dispersion of pulsars adduced below demonstrate it.

The table 1. Parameters of an interstellar dispersion of pulsars.

PSR

t

R

DM

TSN

Kform

DMaether

Name

[ms]

[ps]

[ps/cm3]

[Myear]

[ps/cm3]

[ps/cm3]

0525+21

3745

2000

51

14,000

0,000

51,00

0531+21

33

2000

57

0,001

0,144

48,22

0611+22

335

1500

97

0,090

0,929

40,35

0809+74

1292

190

60

0,125

0,902

4,96

0833+45

98

500

69

0,011

0,837

17,92

0943+10

1098

300

15

5,000

0,016

14,00

0950+08

253

98

3

18,000

0,000

3,00

1133+16

1188

210

5

5,000

0,016

4,00

1154-62

401

8000

267

0,500

0,663

226,56

1845-19

4308

670

20

4,500

0,025

18,49

1913+16

59

5600

167

2,000

0,193

155,22

1919+21

1337

420

12

16,000

0,000

12,00

1937-215

1,56

2500

100

1,000

0,439

73,19

2021+51

529

760

23

3,000

0,085

17,82

Fig. 2. The distribution of dispersion measure (DM) of pulsars
(Blue circles are observed DM of signals of pulsars,
red crosses are DM of aether).

The dispersion of electromagnetic waves in low frequencies

Prolonging relation χ(ω) in figure 1 to the left, it is possible to expect that in range of low frequencies χ(ω) becomes commensurable with dielectric constant of an ether that is the rate of propagation of electromagnetic waves in free from substance aether becomes much lower than "the electrodynamic constant" c.

Wishing to test this guess, the author has executed experiment on measurement of velocity of travelling wave in a lengthy line (cable) in low frequencies.

For the experiment the copper electric line (twisted pair, UTP, category 3, 1000 ft length) was used. The generators of sinusoidal signals G3-118 (10 Hz - 200 kHz) and G6-26 (0,001 Hz - 10 kHz) were used. The two-beam oscillograph L-5040 (0-40 MHz) was used for delay measurement. The scheme of the experimental installation is shown in figure 3.

Fig. 3. The scheme of the experimental installation for measurement of electromagnetic waves velocity in low-frequency range.

With the help of the given installation the phase delay of wave passing througn lengthy line in a mode of the traveling wave was measured. This mode was supplied by selection of matched active load resistance at the end of the line.

The results of measurements are shown in the table 2 and are mapped in figures 4 and 5.

Table 2. Velocity of a EM-wave in the line from frequency

F [Hz]

τ(line) [mcs]

τ(ether) [mcs]

Vline [103km/s]

Vether [103km/s]

ε

200000

1,50

1,01

201,8

300,0

2,21

150000

1,50

1,01

201,8

300,0

2,21

100000

1,52

1,01

199,1

300,0

2,27

70000

1,60

1,08

189,2

280,9

2,52

50000

1,8

1,18

168,1

257,5

3,18

35000

2,1

1,31

144,1

230,8

4,33

28000

2,4

1,48

126,1

204,1

5,66

20000

2,8

1,71

108,1

176,6

7,7

14000

3,3

2,02

91,7

149,5

10,7

10000

3,9

2,44

77,6

123,9

15

7000

4,7

3,01

64,4

100,4

22

5000

5,5

3,80

55,0

79,7

30

3500

6,6

4,89

45,9

61,8

43

2800

7,5

6,40

40,4

47,3

55

2000

9,0

8,54

33,6

35,4

80

1400

10,5

11,65

28,8

26,0

108

1000

12,5

16,25

24,2

18,6

154

700

15

23,16

20,2

13,1

221

500

18

33,72

16,8

9,0

318

250

25

51,28

12,1

5,9

614

100

39

82,59

7,8

3,7

1494

50

55

138,92

5,5

2,2

2972

Fig. 4. Signal parameters measured in experiment, in a half-logarithmic scale
1 - is delay of electromagnetic wave in the line, 2 - is velocity of EM-wave in the line, 3 - is velocity counted to free aether, 4 - is dielectric permittivity of aether, 5 - is wave impedance of the line, 6 - is delay of electromagnetic wave counted to free aether.

Fig. 5. Parameters of a signal measured in experiment, in a logarithmic scale
(labels are the same as in fig. 4)

Fig. 6. The installation for measurement of capacitance.

As it visible from the shown experimental data the velocity of electromagnetic wave drops with decreasing of frequency lower 100 kHz with 10 dB per decade gradient. It is visible clear in figure 5. It is possible under one requirement only: if the dielectric permittivity of aether (“the empty space”) grows with decreasing of frequency with 20 dB per decade gradient.

Moreover, the increase of dielectric permittivity is observed for distances commensurable with a wavelength, but not for small distances. It was tested with the help of other experiment, which is usually executed by the students of radio engineering technical schools and institutes during laboratory works. With the help of the slightly modified installation shown in fig. 6 the capacity of an air capacitor by face value 720 pF, air gap = 0.25 mm, in the same frequency band was measured. The measurements have shown that the capacitance does not vary with frequency that is for distances much smaller than the wavelength (i.e. distance between plates of the capacitor) the dielectric permittivity of aether is stable (see fig. 7).

Fig. 7. Results of measurement of an air capacitance 720 pF in low frequencies.

Conclusions

The carried out analysis of the data on the interstellar dispersion and experiment on measurement of velocity of the electromagnetic wave in low frequencies has allowed to show following:

  - The velocity of electromagnetic waves in vacuo, so called “the electrodynamic constant” is not constant. It varies on interstellar distances in a radio-frequency range and it is subject to strong change in low-frequency range, dropping with decreasing of frequency with 10 dB per decade gradient below 100 kHz (for 3 kms wavelength and more).

  - The whole spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic waves is divided on three cardinal differring range:

  - The dielectric permittivity of empty space grows with distance for frequencies below 100 kHz (for kilometer distances).

  - The known equations of electrodynamics can not be kept for distributed systems greater than 3 kms at frequencies less than 100 kHz in connection with inconstancy of velocity of electromagnetic waves.

  - The stationary and slow fields are not a particular case of electrodynamics with constant wave velocity.

  - Back-square Coulomb's dependency of interaction force between electric charges becomes the inverse cubic dependency for greater distances (with dog-leg on 0.5 - 2 km).

  - Lengthy low-frequency electric lines have linear electric and energy capacity more than given by the equations of electrodynamics with constant wave velocity "c".

  - From centennial practice of radio transmitting devices there is known that below 100 kHz the efficiency of emission falls sharply. Now this phenomenon has explanation: below 100 kHz velocity of electromagnetic waves falls and dielectric permittivity of aether increases. That leads to reduction of wave impedance of environment and it is obstacle for radio waves transmission.

  - The opinion of author about origin magnetic storms as effects of electromagnetic pulses of deiterium-tritium explosions on the Sun. Under average 1 Hz frequency of magnetic field oscillations measured on the Earth their delay from solar flash makes about 40 hours that corresponds to velocity of electromagnetic wave ~1000 km/s.

- It is possible to guess, that capacitances of large sized capacitors, such as thunderstorm clouds, ionosphere layers, the Earth and the celestial bodies, have values much more than it is yielded by the formulas with stationary value of dielectric permittivity of aether (instead of linear dependency of ball capacity from radius it must exist square-law dependency). For confirmation of the last the realization of experiments with large size capacitances is necessary.

Acknowlegments

The author is grateful to the general director of “MeinTech Ltd” Alex Kashitzyn, Almaty, Kazakhstan for technical assistance in experiments described in the present paper.

The author expreses his gratitude to Nick Noskov (The Nuclear Research Institute of The National Nuclear Centre, Almaty, Kazakhstan) and to PhD Felix Gorbatzewich (The Kola Scientific Centre, Apatity, Russia) for moral support in present work.

Karim Khaidarov,
Almaty, November 12, 2007

References

  1. Michelson A., Morley E. - American J. Sci., 1887, 34, p. 333 - 345.
  2. St. Marinov, The velocity of light is direction dependent / Czech. J. Phys. 1974. B24. N9. 965-970.
  3. Lorentz H. A. Proc. Acad. Sci. - Amsterdam, 1904, V.6, p. 809.
  4. Poincare H. Sur la dynamique lélectron, Comptes rendus de lÁcademie des sciences, 140 (1905), pages 1504 - 1508. Oeuvres, tome IX, pages 489 - 493.
  5. Einstein A. Annalen der Phys., 1905, B.17, s. 891.
  6. Белопольский А.А. Астрономические труды. - Москва, ГИТТЛ, 1954.
  7. Khaidarov K.A. Aethereal Thermodynamics. - BRI, Almaty, 2003.
  8. Умов Н.А. Теория простых сред и ее приложение к выводу основных законов электростатических и электродинамических взаимодействий. Одесса, 1873.
  9. Умов Н.А. Уравнения движения энергии в телах (1874). - Избранные сочинения.
  10. Умов Н.А. Прибавление к работе "Уравнения движения энергии в телах" (1874).- Избранные сочинения.
  11. Umov N.A. Albeitung der Bewegungsgleichungen der Energie in continuirlichen Körpern (Вывод уравнения движения энергии в непрерывных телах). "Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik", Bd. XIX, 1874, H. 5.
  12. Umov N.A. Ein Theorem &uuber;ber die Wechselwirkungen in Endlichen Entfernungen. (Теорема относительно взаимодействий на расстояниях конечных)., "Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik", Вd. XIX, 1874, Bd. XIX, 1874, H. 2.
  13. Regener, E., Zeitschrift für Physik 80, 666-669, 1933.
  14. Khaidarov K.A. The Invisible Universe. - BRI, Almaty, 2005
  15. Khaidarov K.A. Temperature of Aether and Redshifts. - BRI, Almaty, 2005

main page   list of papers   library  

Знаете ли Вы, что электромагнитное и другие поля есть различные типы колебаний, деформаций и вариаций давления в эфире.

Понятие же "физического вакуума" в релятивистской квантовой теории поля подразумевает, что во-первых, он не имеет физической природы, в нем лишь виртуальные частицы у которых нет физической системы отсчета, это "фантомы", во-вторых, "физический вакуум" - это наинизшее состояние поля, "нуль-точка", что противоречит реальным фактам, так как, на самом деле, вся энергия материи содержится в эфире и нет иной энергии и иного носителя полей и вещества кроме самого эфира.

В отличие от лукавого понятия "физический вакуум", как бы совместимого с релятивизмом, понятие "эфир" подразумевает наличие базового уровня всей физической материи, имеющего как собственную систему отсчета (обнаруживаемую экспериментально, например, через фоновое космичекое излучение, - тепловое излучение самого эфира), так и являющимся носителем 100% энергии вселенной, а не "нуль-точкой" или "остаточными", "нулевыми колебаниями пространства". Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.

НОВОСТИ ФОРУМАФорум Рыцари теории эфира
Рыцари теории эфира
  27.04.2016 - 07:59: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> Проблема государственного терроризма - Карим_Хайдаров.
25.04.2016 - 07:47: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> КОЛЛАПС МИРОВОЙ ФИНАНСОВОЙ СИСТЕМЫ - Карим_Хайдаров.
24.04.2016 - 21:11: АСТРОФИЗИКА - Astrophysics -> Комета 67Р/Чурюмова-Герасименко и проблема ее происхождения - Евгений_Дмитриев.
20.04.2016 - 12:33: ЭКОЛОГИЯ - Ecology -> ЭКОЛОГИЯ ДЛЯ ВСЕХ - Карим_Хайдаров.
17.04.2016 - 22:31: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> РУССКИЙ МИР - Карим_Хайдаров.
09.04.2016 - 06:59: АСТРОФИЗИКА - Astrophysics -> Сезонные колебания уровня вод морей и океанов - Юсуп_Хизиров.
28.03.2016 - 16:42: СОВЕСТЬ - Conscience -> ПРАВОСУДИЯ.НЕТ - Карим_Хайдаров.
17.03.2016 - 11:20: СЕЙСМОЛОГИЯ - Seismology -> Запасы воды под Землёй - Карим_Хайдаров.
15.03.2016 - 16:15: ЦИТАТЫ ЧУЖИХ ФОРУМОВ - Outside Quotings -> ВЫМИРАНИЕ ДИНОЗАВРОВ на www.nkj.ru - Карим_Хайдаров.
23.02.2016 - 20:34: Беседка - Chatter -> Приливы и отливы - Юсуп_Хизиров.
19.02.2016 - 05:38: ФИЗИКА ЭФИРА - Aether Physics -> Скорость распространения гравитации - Карим_Хайдаров.
Боровское исследовательское учреждение - Bourabai Research Bourabai Research Institution